Romanian ZPM (Zero Point Module)

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Fighter posted this 19 June 2019

Hi guys. I'm creating this thread in order to present a device which I think is a overunity device.
Just a short introduction...
I'm from Romania and I'm in this researching field for a few years working with Cd_Sharp, exchanging test results, information, hypothesis and ideas. He is in this field for more years than me so I actually learned a lot from him about this so I consider this device a result of our common work and research.
Also this device is using bucking coils about which I learned a lot from the information shared with all of us here by Chris.
The reason I'm making this information public is because I know nobody will gonna get rich from it, we all know the history and what happened to other researchers keeping secrets, trying to patent and produce in series their devices: they were silenced, were killed in "strange" accidents and took their secrets with them in the grave while we still struggle with the disasters produced by fossil-fuel/energy cartels ("Big Oil") and keep paying them trillions every year while we die from pollution and extreme weather and watching our planet on the way to becoming a big dead desert.
The truth is we as a species have very little time left to change the actual direction so even if we cannot stop the already started chain-reaction of weather changes at least we can limit the incoming effects and not making them worse by continuing on our way. Scientists say on the current way we will be here until 2050. Personally, seeing what is happening now I think they are optimistic.
So please use this information to replicate the device, test it (prove me right or prove me wrong), improve it and share back here your findings and improvements. The scope here is to have a number of these improved devices capable to provide electricity for a house so they can make it energy-independent.
Feel free to share the blueprints with others, we would be happy to know that at some point in the near future everyone will have his house powered by one or more devices like this.
Don't make the same mistake others did, don't try to produce it in series 'cause you can be sure they will come after you and hunt you down. When one or more devices like this will be capable to power a house then produce them for you, for friends or neighbors you trust. When hundreds or thousands of devices will be functioning in wild they will have no way to silence or hunt down so many people, it would be futile to even try.

Also don't think about keeping it secret just for yourself. There is no individual escape from what's coming, it's about just two options: we all survive or we all die. If only few hundreds of people will use this technology and keep it secret there will be no change in our actual direction as a species. Others will still use fossil fuel, pollution will continue and weather will become more and more violent. Free-energy will be useless for you while a 5, or 6 or even 7 grade typhoon or a local storm-cell is ripping your house apart. Don't think this will happen ? Look more carefully around you at what's happening with the weather in your area and in the world.
And don't steal this and post it somewhere else pretending to be the product of your research, give credit to these two Romanians, to Chris and to this community which is working hard to make a difference for the future.

If you find ZPM intriguing and the experiments and data I share here with you useful for your own projects and research, you may help the further research by donating:

 

 

Your support will be very much appreciated and it will be used ONLY for equipment and building customized electronics for further research and experiments.

If you're working with a ZPM replication please share your findings here like I do so we can enhance this device.

Thank you,
Fighter

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Fighter posted this 19 June 2019

So let's start...

This is how ZPM is looking like (link to larger image here):

ZPM is using an Metglas AMCC-200 core, I bought two of them in 2017 for my research on Bearden's MEG; unfortunately I failed to make the device work even if I tried for two years; that's why I was silent here because I had no interesting results to present about my research.

I'm putting links about AMCC-200 technical specs here:

Hitachi - AMCC Cores Technical

Hitachi - AMCC Cores Presentation.

I recommend checking how Metglas cores are produced and read about their special characteristics so you know what you're dealing with; remember Metglas was something produced in 70s for military and space technologies.

Let me clarify something here, it's possible that Metglas (which is yet kind of expensive) is not needed for reproducing this device, maybe it works very well by using ferrite cores and using much lower frequencies, I'm just describing what I'm using in my research now.

It has two bucking coils (marked the with "L" and "R") winded in a way that when they're connected in series and powered on, their magnetic fields are opposing.

L coil has 101.4mH inductance and approx. 150 turns made of 0.8mm standard copper wire for coils. These are the complete characteristics I measured with my LCR meter (link to larger image here):

R coil has 365.5mH inductance and approx. 300 turns made of 0.8mm standard copper wire for coils. These are the complete characteristics I measured with my LCR meter (link to larger image here):

My guess is it's not important the ratio of turns and inductances between the two coils, I'm presenting this data just so you know the characteristics of the device I'm working with. Probably different ratios will result just in moving the optimum frequency ranges upper or lower and also different voltage and current on output but I don't think that will have significant impact on device's over-unity capability.

Fighter posted this 19 June 2019

Before connecting the two coils in series I wanted to make sure the magnetic fields produced by the two coils are opposing so I powered each coil separately and checked the polarity of its magnetic field (link to larger image here) :

Then I connected the coils in series and checked again that their magnetic fields are opposing (link to larger image here):

Fighter posted this 19 June 2019

And this the schema of how the device is used (link to larger image here):

I know what you're thinking. "Wait, those light bulbs are powered by the source, not by the device !"

Not entirely true... Initially when the circuit is powered on maybe for few milliseconds could be true but if the frequency is optimum then the light bulbs will take only few miliampers from source, the rest of the power they require will actually be provided by ZPM. As I said what's new in ZPM is the way the bucking coils are used in order to provide power and (as the source is displaying) the voltage for the light bulbs is still provided by the source but almost all the power required by the light bulbs (for example two 12V/35W halogen light bulbs) is actually supplied by the ZPM while source is only providing only a few miliampers.

As a note: there is a limitation of how many light bulbs you can add in the circuit; for every light bulb you add you will need to find another optimum frequency to make the power taken from the source to go down to few miliampers again. Always the new optimum frequency will be lower and depending on how much power the new light bulb requires you may need to decrease the frequency with maybe 100-200 Khz. So adding too many light bulbs will force you to go under 100Khz range where the device will provide less and less power to the bulbs so they will start to get more and more power from the source.

Fighter posted this 19 June 2019

Here is the process I use to find a new optimum frequency when I change the number or type of lightbulbs on the output (in this example for a 12V/5W light bulb):

Fighter posted this 19 June 2019

Well, no more available time for now, I'll post more info when I'll find some time again...

Vidura posted this 19 June 2019

Hey Fighter, I will post here answering to your latest post In the delayed conduction thread. Regarding the feedback loop I am not agreed, not generally , there may be applicable cases like J. Bedinis Battery charging Devices, where he stated the feedback made them fail to work, but many others do use feedbacks:  Figurea, Kapanadze, Don Smith, Floyd Sweet, including any convencional Generator for the field winding. Your primary Dipole is the power source, it's dipole is destroyed and recovered continuously.

For my comments about the driver I am sorry that I have not been clear enough. It depends on the employed circuit of course, but basically i addressed to a  possible energy transfer from the signal generator into the circuit. A small capacitance like the gate of a MOSFET can transfer considerable amount of energy at high frequencies, specially if you use the S.G. directly to drive the MOSFET. A SG. can output perfectly a few watts of power, this can influence in your measurements, you would not see this on your input measurements, it can be avoided by using optical isolating drivers, or dedicated optocouplers to separate the signal source from your  tested device. If you need help for a circuit diagram just let me know, or you could use the design of the power switch modules posted in my thread about switching tool development. Regarding the scalar waves, there's nothing misterious about, It only means longitudinal waves, which are oscillating in the direction of the propagation, in contrast to transverse waves , they oscillating perpendicular to the direction of propagation. At high potential and frequency the longitudinal waves can damage many dielectric materials. A well known phenomenon when experiments with Tesla Coils are performed. Keep up your work and thanks for sharing. Vidura.

cd_sharp posted this 20 June 2019

Hey guys, Vidura

A small capacitance like the gate of a MOSFET can transfer considerable amount of energy at high frequencies, specially if you use the S.G. directly to drive the MOSFET.

Yes, but the S.G. should heat up, especially if it does not include any heat sink.

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Fighter posted this 20 June 2019

Hi guys, I'm currently at work so I don't have too much time but I'll try to address some concerns.

About source's readings, I double-checked it using this wattmeter while powering up the device: https://www.optimusdigital.ro/en/others/2431-watt-metru-dc.html

(link to larger image here)

(link to larger image here)

(link to larger image here)

By setting an non-optimal frequency I forced the ZPM to take 300mA and 221mA from source because at lower power consumption (like 85mA in the third image) the wattmeter will just display "0.00A", I suppose it was not made to measure a value so low in amperes.

Please keep in mind that the wattmetter itself is taking some current so the source's display will show slightly higher current values than the wattmeter. So about this I'm 99.99% percent sure source's readings are correct, don't think it's possible to have both source and wattmeter fooled and displaying miliampers while the power drawn to be ampers.

Other thing that I tried to make sure the source's readings are correct: the source has an physical amperage limiter so you can set the maximum current it can provide before its auto-protection is triggered on. So I set the limiter to few miliampers and tested with an 12V/5W bulb light, here is a video with the test:

About signal generator, I don't see it capable to provide ampers, based on my research these things can't provide more than about 100mA. Here is a video where this model is opened up:

Frankly I don't think it's possible to have two 12V/35W halogen light bulbs powered by that little transformer you see inside of the signal generator without it being destroyed already.

About the MOSFET driver, it's powered directly from source so it can't provide power itself.

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Fighter posted this 20 June 2019

it can be avoided by using optical isolating drivers, or dedicated optocouplers to separate the signal source from your  tested device. If you need help for a circuit diagram just let me know, or you could use the design of the power switch modules posted in my thread about switching tool development.

As I said I'm a beginner about electronics so I will try to find out about optical isolating drivers and optocuplers. How would the simpler schematics for something like this would look like ? Would be helpful to know what components to look for, don't know if I'll have time now to build something like this but I can add it to my to-do list. Thanks !

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Fighter posted this 20 June 2019

Hey dude! Nice work. But take note!
The internal instruments of some tear discs may be misinformed by extreme pulses.
Place the 4700-10000y capacitor in parallel with the output of the power supply. The power supply instrument already measures this current consumption.Vidura's comment is also helpful.

Thanks ! I will try to put 10,000uF capacitor in parallel with the source, thanks for the suggestion.

Fighter posted this 20 June 2019

Thank you for posting this Fighter and also CD_Sharp. Very insightfull.

All the best,

Vasile

You're welcome, please replicate it, test it and if your research can help in enhancing it please share your enhancements with us here. Thank you.

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Fighter posted this 20 June 2019

And here I'm adding the oscilloscope data with probes set to 10X (on output you can see 3 x 12V/5W light bulbs).

Here the yellow channel probes are put on parallel with the light bulbs, meaning it's showing signal from both coils (link to larger image here):

Note: for some unknown reason the blue channel is showing also some signal even if I disconnect its probes from oscilloscope, it's nothing wrong with the channel, it's the first case when I see it not showing a straight line when its probes are disconnected.

And here you can see the blue channel probes put on the small coil ("L") and the yellow channel probes put on the bigger coil ("R") (link to larger image here):

This second image is the most interesting because it's showing the interaction between the two coils while ZPM is functioning.

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Fighter posted this 20 June 2019

And here you can see photos of tests with halogen light bulbs.

This test is with one 12V/20W halogen light bulb, I had it put directly on the table and it was so hot that I noticed the table under the light bulb started to emit smoke, see the small yellow dot on the table in the last photo (link to larger image here):

And the test below is with 2 x 12V/35W halogen light bulbs, as a temporary solution to avoid burning the table I put them on a testboard so they don't stay on the table but for now I can't test with them more than 2-3 minutes because for sure the plastic from the testboard will start to melt; the last image shows the luminozity of these two halogen lights when the lights in the room are turned off (link to larger image here):

After these tests and after having a conversation with Cd_Sharp the conclusion is: this device can be scaled up and can provide power to standard 220V light bulbs.

Note: I intend to record a video to present a test with those two 12V/35W halogen light bulbs, hopefully I will have some time to do this in weekend, I'll post it here when it's ready.

cd_sharp posted this 20 June 2019

My friends, this can be feed-back looped as suggested. A cap is fed by the input power but also by one POC at a time like here , here and probably some other places.

cd_sharp posted this 20 June 2019

Fighter, this is how an optocoupler works, for example if wanting to insert the mains AC sine wave into a microcontroller. The AC signal is rectified (but not filtered) and fed to the optocoupler:

Between Out and Gnd is the optically coupled (electrically decoupled) signal. It's a very simple and useful little device.

JohnStone posted this 20 June 2019

Hi Fighter,

Thanks for sharing your findings :-)

BTW: Myself born in Romania as well - long, long ago :-)

  1. ---------------------

In order to avoid endless discussions about your setup I suggest to feed it for about 5 hours from two or three 9V blocks being connected in series. Below you see an example of  the current capability of an 9V Energizer brand  (end voltage to be 6V):

1 mA - 800 h

10 mA - 55 h

100 mA - 4 h

200 mA - 1,7 h

300 mA - 55 min

400 mA - 25 min

500 mA - 12 min

600 mA - 9 min

700 mA - 5 min


If the batteries survive a 5h challange you can continue with real productive work.

2. -------------------------------
Regarding (possible) feed of energy via your FET switcher from generator:

If you estimate the gate capacitance of the FET to be about 1nF you get for 600kHz a complex impedance of about 265 Ohm.
This gives for 24V about 10mA - theoretically.

But as soon you switch the FET on this minute energy will be shorted to GND only.

The hint from a member is basically sound (theoretically) but in this case you can neglect it.

3. ------------------

Please continue your good work. I am willing to support you in terms of simple but effective methods of measurements for crystal clear clarity on your setup. Remember i.e. my recent post regarding measurement of luminositiy. So please ask!

 

4. --------------

For utmost clarity please confirm:

  1. The FET sits in that black box left hand side in your video?
  2. The GND lead of your generator is being connected to the "source" pin of the FET.

 

Vidura posted this 20 June 2019

Hey Fighter, Please don't misunderstand my last post, I did not want to disregard anything of your work, as I stated my first impression was that it is AU. Take my comments for information purposes if you want, in some cases when we deal with small power levels all this things can be valuable, but if you could actually light two 35w bulbs, the influence from the SG can of course be neglected. Anyway here a suggestion for a very simple isolating switching application. Vidura

YoElMiCrO posted this 21 June 2019

Hi all.

@ Fighter.
I agree with what you mention.
Some time ago perform tests to contrast what N.E Zaev commented about his ferrocassor.
Your circuit and yours have the same in common, only not with bucking coils.
In order to appreciate the phenomenon, a nucleus with a large mass is necessary,
only a small part of it creates the BH/2 energy due to the automation trend
of the core.
The material you use is very good, it has a large μ(max)/μ(inc)] ratio.
To observe the energy gain, iL should be grown up to the value of μ(max) and it will depend on the core, but always around 1.2~1.5Hc, ie, within the reversible area of ​​hysteresis.
It can be shown that the energy absorbed by the charge from the source during the magnetization cycle is:
Edc^2/RL(Ton/T) for being parallel to the inductor, now ...
An energy is also stored in the inductor and will be 0.5iL^2L.
If we look at the behavior of the sling form at the time of Toff we will see an adiabatic process, this is due to the self-magnetization of the material used and contributes to the decrease of its internal entropy, this is where the free energy is.
Then for the demagnetization cycle or Toff we will have two types of energy, one is kinetic and the other potential, it is the sum of these energies that is delivered to the load.
If we analyze, we will see that Pin = [Edc^2/RL(Ton/T)] + [iL^2L/(2T)] and for Toff approximately ...
Pout = [Edc^2/RL(Ton/T)] + [0.5Edc^2/RL(td/T)] + [iL^2L/(2T)] if we assume Ploss = 0.
If the second member in the sums of the equation is different from 0, then Pout/Pin> 1 given that E(cd)=Ed+Efb.
We see that during the self-magnetization cycle the energy is really free and drifts
of the intrinsic property of temperature exchange with the middle of the ferromagnetic core, which from the engineering point of view can be approximated by an infinite heatsink.
To better understand the exposed ...

This study is by N.E Zaev as commented at the beginning of the post and a simple way to understand the phenomenon, without complicated equations or at least the minimum.

I hope I help you in the experiments.
Thanks for sharing.

YoElMiCrO

Fighter posted this 21 June 2019

Guys, thank you for your posts, the information and idea from your posts are extremely interesting. Right now I'm at work and can't reply properly but I'll do it during the weekend for each of your posts. Sorry, if it would be possible to buy more time (to have like 30 hours per day) I would gladly do it...

@YoElMiCrO: I'm gonna read this document before asking some questions (even if I already have some in my mind right now about the content of your previous post):

Rediscovering Zaev’s ferro-kessor

For example this, I find it very intriguing :

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cd_sharp posted this 21 June 2019

Vidura, my friend, I also tried to tune the device using a ferrite core. I had no luck either. I know that the magnetic field distributes homogeneously in ferrite. This could be related.

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Vidura posted this 22 June 2019

Hey CD,
I honestly could not dedicate much time these days to the experiments, anyway I found some interesting effects. It is certainly worth to study more about this simple circuit. I dont have much varieties of cores , and there is no local supplier for metglas cores, so I simply used what I had at hand. There seems to build up a huge amount of recirculating- reactive power when resonant, and it happened very seldom that the bulbs lit, although that the power from the source should be present anytime. The voltage on the center tap between the coils becomes pretty high, and the two coils are always 180ª out of phase. Also I noted a important power drawing of the driver  >2w @ 450kHz , using a IRF250 mosfet, it could be normal, I didn't make the calculation. When I lowered the frequency  below 70 kHz the lamps(2x3W @6v) lit dimly at a lower harmonic . I guess the core and coils I used dont have  the adecuate parameters for a successful replication.

Then I wanted to share this  idea regarding the output power measurement. I remembered the researcher Robert Adams, who used to be a professional in calorimetric power measurements. It would be a possibility to use a small  submergible water heater of convenient  resistance (there are 12v models available), and take temperature readings for a exact amount of water, in a measured time interval the power / work can exactly be calculated. A very interesting comparison could be made with the change of temperature of the core, in the same time interval, in order to proof or disprove the theory of conversion of thermal energy in the core.

Vidura

Fighter posted this 23 June 2019

@Cd-Sharp

My friends, this can be feed-back looped as suggested. A cap is fed by the input power but also by one POC at a time like here , here and probably some other places.

I agree but first we should figure out what exactly from that output burned the 10,000uF/50V capacitor from one of the two channels of my bridge-rectifier using fast Schottky diodes and resolve that problem. Right now I'm sure it will happen again with the other channel if I try again. Also I have other 2 capacitors like this but they could be killed too if using them both in the same time on output will not resolve the problem

Fighter, this is how an optocoupler works, for example if wanting to insert the mains AC sine wave into a microcontroller. The AC signal is rectified (but not filtered) and fed to the optocoupler:

Between Out and Gnd is the optically coupled (electrically decoupled) signal. It's a very simple and useful little device.

Few questions about the capabilities of octocuplers:

  1. Are they "copying" exactly the form of the signal from a function generator ? Any kind of signal like sinewave, rectangular, triangular etc. with their duty-cycle ?
  2. How many Ampers can they handle ? Do they need radiators for high current ? I suppose they do.
  3. How much they can handle in terms of high-frequency ? Can they go to let's say 700-800 KHz ?
  4. What model would be able to handle currents of max. 5A and frequencies of max. 700-800 Khz (higher = better) without distorting the "copied" signal ?

Fighter posted this 23 June 2019

@JohnStone:

In order to avoid endless discussions about your setup I suggest to feed it for about 5 hours from two or three 9V blocks being connected in series.

I tried to test it this way using 3 x 9V Duracell batteries (the nearby store don't have Energizer) but there is a flaw in this scenario: the batteries cannot sustain the same voltage during the tests. More specific this is what I did:

Searched for the optimum frequency of ZPM for 27V and saved it in the signal generator memory (link to larger image here):

Then replaced the source with batteries. The luminosity of the light bulb is much lower and it stays on for about 15 minutes before it goes off. Batteries are getting warm. If I shutdown the test and wait for a while this can be repeated for another approx. 15 minutes (link to larger image here):

After few tests like this wanted to check what's going on. I connected the multimeter, checked and found out that the voltage of the batteries drop fast from the beginning of the test, this is a video made after few tests:

As you can see the voltage is decreasing fast and after few tests batteries have only 23V not 27V for which I set the frequency of the test.

I kind of find this test inconclusive because having a variable voltage the frequency of the ZPM is not optimum at all so of course it will require more current all the time not just a few miliampers like it's happening when the source is providing the same voltage and there is a fixed optimum frequency.

Maybe I should search for an standard AC adapter providing around 25V, capable to provide a limited amount of current (to see if it's capable to power the test) and put an AC wattmeter on it during the test so I can check the input without the DC source. But I don't know if a standard AC wattmeter is capable of showing accurate reading at miliampers level...

Please continue your good work. I am willing to support you in terms of simple but effective methods of measurements for crystal clear clarity on your setup. Remember i.e. my recent post regarding measurement of luminositiy. So please ask!

Thank you, I will.

For utmost clarity please confirm:

  1. The FET sits in that black box left hand side in your video?
  2. The GND lead of your generator is being connected to the "source" pin of the FET.
  1. Yes. Actually I have two IRF3205ZPBF FETs because the driver has two channels but currently I'm using only one channel like in the photos I previously posted;
  2. Yes. Every FET is connected to a single channel from signal generator but I'm actually using only one channel from signal generator for ZPM; FET is connected as in this image (link to larger image here):

If you want I could open that box to take some photos but I don't have a lot of time now, I need to answer to all the latest posts here as I promised.

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Vidura posted this 23 June 2019

Hey Fighter, Thanks for sharing your work. I will answer your questions about optical isolating of the signal. But in first place I would suggest that you put a scope probe on the gate of the MOSFET, to check what signal is actually fed. What MOSFET you are using? optocouplers do only transfer signals, not power, and the frequency capability depends on the model. You have to be aware that the gate drive of a MOSFET require power, and this power increase proportional to the frequency. For this reason for practical implementation the frequency should better be kept lower. In the modul that I have shown in the video the power for this can be provided by the same supply, or by a dedicated separate source. And the driver is have a high speed optocoupler in the same chip integrated, for easy implementation. I can provide you a further simplified circuit if you want. Regards the back looping u would suggest to try with UF diodes rated for higher voltage, and a smaller capacitor, and some 100 nF Cap in parallel to smoot the spikes. Regards Vidura.

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Fighter posted this 23 June 2019

@Vidura:

Hey Fighter, Please don't misunderstand my last post, I did not want to disregard anything of your work, as I stated my first impression was that it is AU. Take my comments for information purposes if you want, in some cases when we deal with small power levels all this things can be valuable, but if you could actually light two 35w bulbs, the influence from the SG can of course be neglected. Anyway here a suggestion for a very simple isolating switching application. Vidura

Hey, man, no worries, we're working with different devices having different behaviors here so any opinion is most than welcomed Especially because I'm a beginner in electronics I'm always listening and learning.

About the driver I saw the video so should I use in the same time the optocuplers and the IRF3205ZPBFs I already have ? What optocuplers should I use for these transistors ? How would the schema for a signle-channel driver would look like ? Could it handle high frequencies like 700-800 KHz ? Thanks !

Hey CD,
I honestly could not dedicate much time these days to the experiments, anyway I found some interesting effects. It is certainly worth to study more about this simple circuit. I dont have much varieties of cores , and there is no local supplier for metglas cores, so I simply used what I had at hand. There seems to build up a huge amount of recirculating- reactive power when resonant, and it happened very seldom that the bulbs lit, although that the power from the source should be present anytime. The voltage on the center tap between the coils becomes pretty high, and the two coils are always 180ª out of phase. Also I noted a important power drawing of the driver  >2w @ 450kHz , using a IRF250 mosfet, it could be normal, I didn't make the calculation. When I lowered the frequency  below 70 kHz the lamps(2x3W @6v) lit dimly at a lower harmonic . I guess the core and coils I used dont have  the adecuate parameters for a successful replication.

Then I wanted to share this  idea regarding the output power measurement. I remembered the researcher Robert Adams, who used to be a professional in calorimetric power measurements. It would be a possibility to use a small  submergible water heater of convenient  resistance (there are 12v models available), and take temperature readings for a exact amount of water, in a measured time interval the power / work can exactly be calculated. A very interesting comparison could be made with the change of temperature of the core, in the same time interval, in order to proof or disprove the theory of conversion of thermal energy in the core.

Vidura

So you saw almost the same behavior I presented here when the frequency is optimum but not low-amperage on your DC source's readings ? Could be something wrong with my source's reading and in the same time with the wattmeter's readings ?..

About reading watter temperature method, kind of need to buy anything because I don't have that 12V water heater and also I would need a waterproof temperature reader. I have a temperature reader on one of my multimeters but it's not waterproof and I never used it, don't know if it's accurate or not. Eventually I could use it to check if the temperature of the core drops, hopefully it can show me somehow accurate data...

Hey Fighter, Thanks for sharing your work. I will answer your questions about optical isolating of the signal. But in first place I would suggest that you put a scope probe on the gate of the MOSFET, to check what signal is actually fed. What MOSFET you are using? optocouplers do only transfer signals, not power, and the frequency capability depends on the model. You have to be aware that the gate drive of a MOSFET require power, and this power increase proportional to the frequency. For this reason for practical implementation the frequency should better be kept lower. In the modul that I have shown in the video the power for this can be provided by the same supply, or by a dedicated separate source. And the driver is have a high speed optocoupler in the same chip integrated, for easy implementation. I can provide you a further simplified circuit if you want. Regards the back looping u would suggest to try with UF diodes rated for higher voltage, and a smaller capacitor, and some 100 nF Cap in parallel to smoot the spikes. Regards Vidura.

I'm using IRF3205ZPBFs on every channel, the driver has two channels but I'm currently using only one for this experiment. I disconnected the channel from ZPM and I put the oscilloscope on it, this is how it looks like, don't look like a very accurate squarewave but could be because of the high frequency (link to larger image here):

About the driver I saw the video so should I use in the same time the optocuplers and the IRF3205ZPBFs I already have ? What optocuplers should I use for these transistors ? How would the schema for a signle-channel driver would look like ? Could it handle high frequencies like 700-800 KHz ? Thanks !

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YoElMiCrO posted this 23 June 2019

@ Fighter.
Thanks for sharing your experiments.
What is happening to you may be buspumping, if that is
you solve it with a series diode directly in the drain of the mosfet, in this way
the parasitic diode inside it does not clamp during the Toff cycle.

Design a circuit to see what really happens, I publish it in your post
when it is finished and tested.

YoElMiCrO.

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Fighter posted this 23 June 2019

@YoElMiCrO:

You seem to have an very advanced background in mathematics and physics so of course your insights are very helpful, thanks.

I did read the document about Ferro-Kessor, first of all I wasn't aware of that by magnetizing a core its temperature drops.

I have few questions about your post:

  1. In your opinion are here the characteristics of an over-unity device ? Especially seeing the oscilloscope readings, did you saw something similar in other devices ? I'm asking this because for now even if i see the two 12V/25W halogen lights' luminosity I'm still struggling to figure out a way to get precise reading of the output; also even if I used DC source's readings and also an DC wattmeter reading there could be like 1% possibility to have inaccurate  readings on input too;
  2. Considering the very high frequency how is possible to have the core temperature dropping and then receiving temperature from environment in just a single cycle ? Does the core have enough time to do this in just miliseconds ?
  3. Do you think that in order to scale up ZPM using a bigger core is the only way ? I was thinking scaling up the coils could be a valid way too, eventually changing their turns ratio could be another possible way (right now it's approx. 1/2 - 150/300 turns;
  4. What are μ(max) and μ(inc)], I understand they are specific to the core ?

Thanks for the answers.

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Fighter posted this 23 June 2019

@ Fighter.
Thanks for sharing your experiments.
What is happening to you may be buspumping, if that is
you solve it with a series diode directly in the drain of the mosfet, in this way
the parasitic diode inside it does not clamp during the Toff cycle.

YoElMiCrO.

You're welcome

Is it possible to have impact on the DC source's readings and also in the same time on the DC wattmeter I used to verify the DC source's readings ? Could both be affected by something in the same time and show very wrong readings like miliampers instead of hundreds of miliampers ?

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YoElMiCrO posted this 23 June 2019

@ Fighter.

The reality is that it is always difficult to confirm the UA, but not impossible.
I'll analyze the waveforms to see what happens.
If I have seen anomalous behavior in some circuits.
The action by which the core auto-magnetizes is an intrinsic parameter of the core and
can go from the nano seconds to hours, you have to keep in mind that B should
remain constant and at a value where the permeability of the core is maximum.
That's why you need some way to control Ton.
Each core according to its mass will obtain a determined energy of the medium, but
Of course, increasing the number of turns also increases the inductance and
you must lower iL so that B is the one that maintains the maximum permeability.
μ(inc) is the permeability of the core just where the hysteresis curve becomes
linear and μ (max) is the maximum permeability achieved by said core for a value
of given magnetic field.
Today I will do tests to try to replicate the phenomenon and understand it, because I never tried
with bucking coils.

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JohnStone posted this 23 June 2019

Hi Fighter,

I have a possible suggestion for the premature death of your capacitor.

At switch mode PSUs the storage capacitors need to be specified for severe (1) pulsating currents - else they tend to explode. Standard electrolytic capacitors do not have sophisticated internal connections. So if pulsed with high repetetive currents they experience temperature rise. I experienced it live once when a SMPS exploded 8 capacitors one by one up to burning the machine it was supposed to feed.

Additionally SMPS require capacitors with (2) low inductivity of the leads (low ESR) in order to get the pulsating currents to the full surface of thecapacitor plates. Many electrolytic caps are specified for 50/60Hz only.

I suppose your huge capacitor was not specified for (1) nor (2). So this capacitor might be part of the tank circuit but not with full specified capacity  but some intermediate parasitic R/L/C value.

Additionally the output capacitor inside your PSU might be as well part of the tank circuit. At such conditions the PSU is not able to measure currents reliably.

You might try using a diode in series to your 24V lead (coming from PSU) in order to eliminate backlash to your PSU. 

 

-----------------------------

Your input configuration:

I feel that your setup operates intensively with the power supply as part of the oscillations.

Please be aware that a FET has an intrinsic, reverse and parasitic diode (not very fast) - see schematic symbol .

  • In ON state the power will flow from plus to GND - as intended.
  • IN OFF state the power might flow reverse through the parasitic diode. 

YoElMiCrO  suggested the insertion of an additional diode in order to overcome this implication.

---------------------

It would be very interesting if you could check if the sweet spot (frequency) of your setup depends on the value or make of this huge capacitor.

-------------------------

Fighter, you should not be disappointed. :-)

Unfortunately you tapped into several parasitic properties of electronic components. In fact EVERY component has R/L/C properties or some parasitic diodes .... but usually they do not matter if used in proved standard circuits. High frequency is one ingredient that makes them matter. That's life! Sometimes learning goes the hard way. But you will get support in this forum. Important is - you DO learn.

So, before you dive into opto couplers please re-check the operation of your setup:

  1. with those two diodes added (see above)
  2. Sweet spot (resonance) without and with different makes or values of capacitors (replacing that high 10000µF cap.)

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Vidura posted this 23 June 2019

Hey Fighter,

As you can see the signal on the gate is not the expected square wave at 50%Dty. This happens because the drive capabilities of the SG, are not sufficient at high frequencies. But this does not mean that the device don't work of course. In order for not flooding your thread with information about switching(there are some specific threads on this topic, where we can discuss different switching techniques ) I will come to the point:  to answer the question about the accuracy of the input measurements: Yes there is a possibility that the digital meters give erroneous readings. As it seems the device is capable to light two 35W bulbs to a considerable brightness we can ignore the few watts that might come from the SG. The main concern at the moment I guess is to verify if the readings on the input are accurate, I suggest two methods: first to put a current sensing resistor on the input and use the scope to measure the current and voltage from the  power supply. It should be immune to RF interference. second method: add a low pass filter between the power supply and the circuit like this: 

 

the component values are not critical , two inductors of a few mH a big electrolytic cap, and another  cap about 100nF

then try if there is a change in the readings of the displays.

I hope this helps .

VIDURA.

 

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Chris posted this 23 June 2019

My Friends,

I need to say, the term: Parasitic, is a term used when one gets something that is not wanted, E.G: Stray Signals.

 

Do not forget, this is what we want! It is important that our equipment, specifically Partnered Output Coils, Bucking Coils, "Generate" a Voltage and therefore Current. Remember: I = V / R

Importantly, Parasitic for some, is the complete opposite for others!

I like the term Bus-Pumping, as this is quite literally what we are doing! Again, for us, this is not a Parasitic Process, this is quite literally: Electromagnetic Induction, the process we are encouraging!

As an example, look at the Parasitic Signals in this Video:

 

I hope this helps some!

   Chris

Marathonman posted this 24 June 2019

I would suggest a PI filter which is the same as Vidura's but with a cap in front of the inductors also. good advice vidura.

Marathonman

Fighter posted this 24 June 2019

Hi JohnStone,

At switch mode PSUs the storage capacitors need to be specified for severe (1) pulsating currents - else they tend to explode. Standard electrolytic capacitors do not have sophisticated internal connections. So if pulsed with high repetetive currents they experience temperature rise. I experienced it live once when a SMPS exploded 8 capacitors one by one up to burning the machine it was supposed to feed.

Additionally SMPS require capacitors with (2) low inductivity of the leads (low ESR) in order to get the pulsating currents to the full surface of thecapacitor plates. Many electrolytic caps are specified for 50/60Hz only.

I suppose your huge capacitor was not specified for (1) nor (2). So this capacitor might be part of the tank circuit but not with full specified capacity  but some intermediate parasitic R/L/C value.

What kind of capacitors are specified for pulsating currents and also low ESR ? Can you give me a hint about a type or an manufacturer producing them ? How expensive are they comparing to what we have in common stores ?

You might try using a diode in series to your 24V lead (coming from PSU) in order to eliminate backlash to your PSU. 

The fastest diodes I have now in stock are some Schottky diodes, I suppose I actually need some ultra-fast diode to be able to respond to the frequency ranges I'm using (hundreds of KHz).

Your input configuration:

I feel that your setup operates intensively with the power supply as part of the oscillations.

Please be aware that a FET has an intrinsic, reverse and parasitic diode (not very fast) - see schematic symbol .

  • In ON state the power will flow from plus to GND - as intended.
  • IN OFF state the power might flow reverse through the parasitic diode. 

YoElMiCrO  suggested the insertion of an additional diode in order to overcome this implication.

---------------------

It would be very interesting if you could check if the sweet spot (frequency) of your setup depends on the value or make of this huge capacitor.

-------------------------

I could also try with diode on drain of the MOSFET but this will need more time (modifying the current MOSFET driver) and for this also I need to buy ultra-fast diodes because I don't have any in stock right now. I'll see what I can do depending on the available time. About the capacitor(s) in DC source, I would't make any changes in there just for testing, sorry but I think you understand...

Fighter, you should not be disappointed. :-)

Unfortunately you tapped into several parasitic properties of electronic components. In fact EVERY component has R/L/C properties or some parasitic diodes .... but usually they do not matter if used in proved standard circuits. High frequency is one ingredient that makes them matter. That's life! Sometimes learning goes the hard way. But you will get support in this forum. Important is - you DO learn.

Actually I'm very dissapointed. That DC source is a lab source, should not care about spikes, pulses or frequencies, its readings should be accurate no matter what. Also that wattmeter being affected in the same way ? I used it to double-check the source's readings. And also those MOSFETS which seem to not be able to handle hundreds of KHz and also sending back to source spikes ? Seems our current electronics available in store are very limited about high-frequencies. What I don't get it is how that current limiter on the DC source is affected also ? I mean that is a physical knob not some software thing. Displaying bad readings I kind of understand. But how is that physical current limited being fooled so the source provide let's ampers while that limiter is set to a few miliampers ? I have some doubts about that current limiter being also affected. I'll figure it out in one way or another.

Thanks for the help and advice !

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Fighter posted this 24 June 2019

Hi Vidura,

The main concern at the moment I guess is to verify if the readings on the input are accurate, I suggest two methods: first to put a current sensing resistor on the input and use the scope to measure the current and voltage from the  power supply. It should be immune to RF interference. second method: add a low pass filter between the power supply and the circuit

The first thing I will try is with a ultra-fast diode put on the output of the source as JohnStone suggested, then I would try with the same type of diode on MOSFET drain as YoElMiCrO suggested. About measuring input power I would try the current sensing resistor, I don't have something useful right now but I'll figure it out about this method.

Thanks for the help and advice !

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Fighter posted this 24 June 2019

Hi Marathonman,

I would suggest a PI filter which is the same as Vidura's but with a cap in front of the inductors also. good advice vidura.

Yeah, I would need to try multiple ways, I will start with the simpler way - ultra-fast diode on DC-source's output, maybe that (hopefully) resolves the issue... If not I'm gonna work on the filter.

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Fighter posted this 24 June 2019

Hi Vasile,

As I also had a Metglas core available (see Picture 1), I tryed your experiment and it did not work for me. Of course, it is not exactly like yours because of mainly two factors: size of core and amount/ratio of windings. I truly believe you stumbled upon something interesting. I have a little laboratory myself, as I like to study different natural phenomena (not only electric or magnetic).  Of course the power source and signal generator are present (see Picture 2). I am also from Romania and I would like to test the core myself. You can have my general info, name, phone, adress, etc. I don't care. You can send thru a courier service( FanCourier preferably as they are more serious and I would pay both ways, to me and back to you). Or you can come yourself to my place and test it. I have to admit I have a different aproach in my experiments, meaning they are not exactly like yours as I kind of stay away from high frequency high power, but when I read thru it I realized I hadn't seen something this close to a very energy efficient circuit. That' s why I want to test it, maybe it helps you. I wait for your reply.

I doubt the core size is important in replicating ZPM but I think you should try with more turns, the magnetic field produced by your smaller coil I don't think it's significant. And (at least for now) try with 1/2 turns ratio I'm currently using. You may use different wire so there will be enough space for let's say 100/200 turns on your core. I will assist you in any way I can in replicating ZPM. About mine, sorry but I need it to figure out ways to get accurate readings on input, I need it for experiments. But I had a discussion with Cd_Sharp and he wants to try a replication, I have a second brand-new identical core and I'm gonna meet Cd_Sharp when he finishes the coil supports he's working on and I'll give him the core, would be nice to (hopefully) have a second device in tests. Please let me know how your device works with the new coils and ask me anything, I would gladly answer to your questions. Would be nice to have a third device in tests Thanks !

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Fighter posted this 24 June 2019

Hi guys,

Short question, I have two shunt resistors like this, do you think I can use them for measuring current on input and output ?

https://www.amazon.com/SMAKN-current-shunt-resistor-Ampere/dp/B00GH8ZRUW

Thanks,

Fighter

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Chris posted this 24 June 2019

Hi Fighter,

I would invest in small precision resistors.

You could use those shunts, but there will be a large error margin because of the super high Ampere rating: 200A

Also I did not see a defined Resistance, assuming ( 0.00038 Ohms from Ohms Law ), and did not see any accuracy rating: ±5%

I would find some 0.1 Ohms precision resistors. It will make life very much easier!

Measure Mean Input:

 

Measure Mean Output:

 

NOTE: If your PSU is Grounded to the same Ground as your Scope, you may have an issue here.

Ohms Law, I = V / R gives us a 10x factor ( 0.1 Ohms ) that's why the Current Probe is 10x then its just:

Vmean x Imean = Pmean

It would be nice as I PM'd you, to put big Caps in there to smooth out the DC Ripple, but most scopes today should be able to sort this out!

   Chris

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Fighter posted this 24 June 2019

Adding the missing information translated from the Romanian store I actually bought them from (about one year ago).

It say maximum voltage 24V. On output of ZPM I could have spikes of high voltage I guess.

Description:

The input voltage range is 6-24V, and overvoltage will cause permanent damage. The green and black cables are plugged into small screws, do not fit into large screws because they affect precision. The direction of shunt current is from the green thread to the black thread.

Technical specifications:

• Model: 200A / 75mV
• Precision level: 0.5-1
• Overload capacity: 120% of rated current, 2 hours
• Resistance to shock frequencies: 80 ~ 120 times / min, 6 hours
• Voltage drop: 75mV
• Environmental conditions: -40 to + 60 ° c
• Size: 119 x 21 mm

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Fighter posted this 24 June 2019

Thank you for the schemas and for advice Chris, I appreciate...

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Chris posted this 24 June 2019

Hey Fighter,

I know you already know how to measure DC Power Fighter, more so for other readers. wink

   Chris

Vidura posted this 24 June 2019

here a very cheap precision shunt, 10  1ohm 1% metal film resistors in parallel, for a 0.1 ohm shunt. good up to 3-4 amps:

@ Fighter , when you continue tests it would be nice to see a scope shot from the mosfetgate when the ZPM is on load.

Thank's VIDURA.

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Fighter posted this 25 June 2019

Hey Fighter,

I know you already know how to measure DC Power Fighter, more so for other readers. wink

Theoretically I know how but never did it, I always used multimeters and where needed gate-rectifiers So the schemas you posted really helps, thanks !

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JohnStone posted this 27 June 2019

Fighter, you asked for some know-how on capacitors. Sorry for delay - am currently very busy.

Here you are.

If you deal with electrolytic caps and fast signals the code word is "low ESR" (see link). These types of capacitors are specified for 100KHz as well. Use of such caps is at SMPS (switch mode power supply) devices - as example.

But you will probably not find a model with (a) low ESR AND (b) 10 mF capacity. Additionally it makes no real sense in your setup as you deal with a frequency around 500KHz. At this freqeuncy this cap does not see the frequency at all. It hides successfully behind the high ESR (series resistor).

But there is a trick available:

Adding different capcitors (value / type) in parallel. Then it does not matter if you have huge amps pulses or fast high frequency ones. Every shape of signal will find its proper "drain" to sink in. Such a cascade could look like:

  • 1000µF electrolytic (not necessarily low ESR)
  • 100µF electrolytic low ESR
  • 10µF electrolytic low ESR
  • 1µF ceramic
  • 100nF ceramic
  • and more  - depending on application

In case of problems you might add at every stage (for test) a second one and see if it makes any difference.

If you consider the knowledge regarding low ESR (see link above) you will understand that we deal with a kind of parasitic series resistor inside the capacitor. Best is to have it low. For ceramic cap types ESR is not really an issue.

Considering the notion above you might deduct that it is important to not add resistance by tiny little wires if you connect your capacitors. Such setup will add deliberate ESR to any kind of capactior.
(BTW: I hate those Chinese cables with alligator clips. You see them frequently in many youtube videos. If you use them at small signals it might be OK but NEVER, NEVER use them if you have to consider decent current pulses. Depending on budget please consider those terminals w/ or w/o screw from normal mains installation.
 They were invented for huge contact performance. Such wiring at your setup does not look nice but is very healthy :-)) 

Experience:

If you wire a normal 50Hz PSU from rectifier to the smoothing cap and you use fat wire; it is still a huge difference if you wire 8cm or 3cm between rectifier and cap. You see the result immediately at the scope as change in ripple voltage. Sometimes there is no ripple at the capactitor and huge ripple at output if wiring was done wrongly.

So please, obsereve your wiring! If you are not happy with your setup then check (1) wire diameter (2) contact quality and (3) distance. These ingredients if used smartly, perform often as cheap and instant magic.

These hints are not for Fighter only, of course. Physics performs universally for ALL in very same manner!

                                             ~o0o~

 

Jagau posted this 27 June 2019

Completely agree with you johnstone

I also hate those Chinese connectors that have a floating contact that we see everywhere on the net,

remove the insulation you will see what I mean. if you want to keep them made like me solder them.

I had to repeat several expereinces because of them. Now I have better power cables.

ESR is a must they win to be known, we have to watch too the following:

voltage rating, RMS current rating and one we cannot forget equivalent series or parallel resistance of your capacitor same thing for inductor.


Jagau

JohnStone posted this 29 June 2019

Isolated circuits:

Recently some of you discussed the use of opto couplers. Please be aware that there is a thread here discussing this topic as well. They proceed in a very professional and skilled manner. Congratulations! This approach is sound but includes many prerequisites and sometimes skills. Circuits are well suited to be converted to final working models.

But there are other approches possible. Please understand there is no good or bad approach. So I will present below my version being applicable for lab use only - quick and not so much dirty :-)

I have tons of 5V wall chargers (USB) laying around - probably everyone. So if you need 5V isolated you give these devices a go. If you use logic level FETs you and they may be satisfied.
In my case I am not and I added 5V -> 15 V 1W isolated DC/DC converters. They are available as 2W version as well and do comply to low budgets. Connect two of them and you have +/- 15V for OP amps ....... So you might be able to compose just out of the box any support for isolated power supply (lower power area up to 24V) and later on you will be able to dismantle and reuse those components at will.

Of course you might choose to work with other wall chrgers and input voltage of i.e 12V and go same path with DC/DC converters. Below some pics just for better understanding.

 I admit, no sane creature would do this for final circuits. But for quick & dirty and reliable lab use it is suitable and I do so frequently.

Please understand: we talk here on LOW POWER signals like opto control for FETs or OPAMPS.

I hesitate to continue with more notions in order to prevent degressing from the main topic here. I will continue on request only in case you need hands-on solutions for your experiment.

Edit:

You may use your standard USB cables as well if you buy those cheap USB breakout PCBs - very convenient!

 i.e. type micro USB

 

 

 

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Chris posted this 29 June 2019

My Friends,

I would like to encourage more people to follow this path of investigation.

Fighter is showing a lot of really good work! His results appear to be very promising!

I shared some similar work a long time ago: Here, I learned the importance of an Earth in SOME Machines. 

 

 

I used a Clunky Home Built H-Bridge, part of which is shown: Here

There is merit to this, Floyd Sweet gave a similar setup the name: The Oscillator

   Chris

 

Fighter posted this 14 July 2019

Hi guys, sorry I was very busy at work and didn't had too much time to continue the experiments.

Few updates...

I tried to use my pocket oscilloscope and an 0.5 Ohms current-sensing resistor (I borrowed it from Cd_Sharp) to measure the current on input but for some unknown reason the measurements are not reliable. I guess this is the difference between a pocket oscilloscope and an full-sized oscilloscope so unless I buy a full-sized one I have no equipment to make this kind of measurement.

Probably I will need to buy one but not in the next few weeks.

Until then I'm trying an workaround, I bought a socket with energy-meter PeakTech P9035 and I intend to use it on the socket powering my source. My plan is to check the readings on it while the source is in stand-by, then powering up light-bulbs with known wattage then powering up ZPM so I can get at least a approximation of watts used by ZPM depending on what's displayed when powering up light-bulbs connected directly to source's output.

Meanwhile, following JohnStone's advice about possible issues at very high frequencies when using wires with crocodile-type terminals, I bought WAGO connectors and rebuilt all the connections:

Also I tested the scenario with a diode and an capacitor on source's output in order to filter possible high-frequency pulses sent back to source from the MOSFET driver which could impact source's power readings.

I used a fast Schottky diode (SB560) put on positive output of the source and an 10,000uF/50V electrolytic capacitor put in parallel on source's output.

Didn't noticed major changes on source's readings so I think this scenario is invalid.

Here is the video:

 

During this test I noticed something (you can see it in the video): adding/removing the capacitor is modifying the optimum frequency of the ZPM even if the capacitor (saw from ZPM's perspective) is behind the MOSFET driver and even behind the Schottky diode. The conclusion would be that this capacitor is somehow a part of the device and it's influencing it, not sure yet how this is possible. Also, my assumption is every DC source have a big capacitor on its output (not sure if it's true for all DC sources) so I guess the other capacitor incorporated in the DC source is being a part and affecting too ZPM's behavior and efficiency.

So when I tested with batteries as input there are two things missing: a ground connection (Chris made references about some devices needing ground connection to work better) and also I didn't had an capacitor in parallel on input as it's happening when using the DC source. Could be a key reason why using the batteries didn't worked well, I'll need to investigate more on this direction.

Another things I noticed during a different test is the AWG (diameter) of the input and output wires is very important. I simulated changing the wires AWG by adding/removing connectors in parallel with existing connectors on input and output. I noticed dramatic effects on efficiency and light-bulbs luminosity when changing the wires AWG as you can see the the following video (I'm using 2 x 12V/35W halogen light-bulbs on output). All the wires I use are litz wires. So be aware of this aspect at least when using on output light-bulbs greater than 5W, use a bigger AWG litz wires on input and output.

 

Something I also noticed when suing 2 x 12V/35W light-bulbs on output, when using those connectors having crocodile-style terminals and small AWG (diameter), the connectors on output are becoming so hot until the plastic which isolates their wires is going to the point of starting to melt even if they don't have direct thermic contact with the halogen lights; in the same time the same type of connectors on input are cold, not  even warmer.

Here could be two possible explanations:

  • let's just suppose there is the same amperage on input and output, the output wires are being hot because of the very high frequency AC while the wires on input are cold because there is DC;
  • or the amperage on the output is much higher than the amperage on the input (as source's readings and the luminosity of the light-bulbs seems to indicate) meaning high COP.

Something else about the MOSFET driver, as you noticed there was a LED indicator on it, inside I had an UA78L12 voltage regulator providing 12V for the LED, it worked for a while as you saw in my initial videos but in time because it had no radiator it stopped functioning as you saw in my other videos. So I decided to replace it with an UA7812 placed on a radiator on the top of the black box. So I removed the UA78L12 and the connectors to the LED and before making changes for UA7812 I ran a test to see if there are any changes in ZPM's behavior and source's reading, there was no difference so the presence of a voltage regulator in the MOSFET driver has no impact on the tests. Just wanted to make sure about it with this occasion.

During the MOSFET driver changes I thought it's good to take some photos of the inside of the black box so you can see what's inside - just a two-channel MOSFET driver and a 12V voltage regulator for powering the LED indicator. Later as the amperage on the ZPM's output will go higher it will be necessary to use those 12V also for a small fan to cool down the MOSFETS' radiator.

So here are the photos with the MOSFET driver opened up during the voltage regulator replacement, I will not post them here as they would take too much space in the thread, you could see them here instead:

https://imgur.com/a/2hRyUzw

I'll continue to post updates here depending on when I'll have again some time for experiments as I'm still very busy at work with the current project.

patrick1 posted this 21 July 2019

Fighter :  wow there is alot too digest there, - i have only just started reading this thread, - from the bottom up, but thx for those videos !!

do you have any theores about the wire gauge issue ?, perhaps changing the end with the capacitor...  mabee its just minute changes in resistance....

also am i too understand the experiment with the diode and capacitor, is too take the reverse emf spike off the primary and put it too a cap ?

[ finished reading the thread now ]  did you ever try iron an transformer with your ZPE setup ?  ... i can also confirm anomolous outputs with what seems too be the mr preva experiment,.......    altough im a total SG1 nut .  and atlantis, and frack even  the new one with jews and japs.

Fighter posted this 22 July 2019

@Patrick: Right now the issue is I'm not sure about the input, I have 3 different readings using 3 different ways to measure the current on input, you can check the video in my next post.

No idea about the cause of the wire gauge issue but I see from experiments there is better efficiency where using bigger wire gauge.

The diode and capacitor are a filter on DC source's output to verify a scenario suggested here in one of the previous posts that the MOSFET driver is sending back to DC source high-frequency pulses that could mess with source's readings (so the source would show incorrect voltage and current on its LED display); so far this scenario seems to be invalid, the DC source is showing the same data with or without that filter.

Actually this is Metglas - a iron core. Its composition is 85-95% iron, 1-5% boron and 5-10% silicon as specified here. But what's special about this core is it's made of foils created by melting the compositions under high heat then cooling it down so fast (almost instantly) that the Metglas alloy don't have time to form a crystalline atomic structure when it become solid again like any metal does when being melt then being cool down normally. That's why the metals obtained this way are also called amorphous (their atomic structure is not crystalline like the usual metals).

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Fighter posted this 22 July 2019

Hi guys,

I had some time this weekend so I've made some experiments to check the DC source's readings using normal loads then using the ZPM as load.

Here is the video:

 

As you can see the source's readings are correct when using a normal load (12V/55W light-bulb) and it's confirmed first by the ampere-meter put in series with the load and second by the voltmeter put in parallel on a 1MOhm/100W aluminum resistor used as a current-sensing shunt.

But when powering up ZPM using the same configuration the DC source, the ampere-meter and the voltmeter are showing very different readings and I have no explanation why and which reading is correct.

Putting that Schottky diode plus a big electrolytic capacitor on source's output as filter against the possible pulses coming back from the MOSFET driver doesn't change the situation, the readings on source's display, ampere-meter and volt-meter still don't match and there are big differences in the current readings on all 3 of them.

So I must admit I don't understand what exactly in this device is making all the measurements on its input being so inaccurate, I always thought the main problem will be to measure the high-frequency AC output of the device not the DC input.

Seems I trusted too much the DC source's readings, I was 100% sure they are accurate as I checked it periodically with other loads and multimeters and the readings were always accurate.

I'll continue the experiments to find out what's going on when I have some free time again.

Chris posted this 22 July 2019

Hey Fighter,

Very good thorough measurements!

At High Frequency DMM's are very unreliable. Your video is an excellent example of this problem.

Don't worry you have done nothing wrong! This is good! it goes to our advantage, because together we can very easily resolve this problem.  wink

An Oscilloscope can make for much better much more accurate measurements! If we take the Mean or Average measurements then the DMM's will be out of the equation.

 

Measure Mean Input:

 

Measure Mean Output:

 

NOTE: If your PSU is Grounded to the same Ground as your Scope, you may have an issue here.

Ohms Law, I = V / R gives us a 10x factor ( 0.1 Ohms ) that's why the Current Probe is 10x then its just:

Vmean x Imean = Pmean

 

So please do not worry, this is a well known problem with Digital Multi Meters. wink

   Chris

Fighter posted this 28 July 2019

Hi guys, as usually I have some free time in weekend so I'm posting updates.

First, I just received my Rigol DS1054Z oscilloscope.

I needed to review my power installation to make sure (as it's recommended) that the oscilloscope  is grounded and the DC source is not grounded. Basically I've made some changes to make sure the ground from oscilloscope's probes have connection to the grounding pins of the power sockets and also the DC source's negative output have no connection to the grounding pins of the power sockets.

Also I calibrated two of the four probes of the oscilloscope.

Then I connected oscilloscope's blue channel to the output of the ZPM and tested with one 12V/5W ligh-bulb (link to larger image here), notice that Vpp=164V, that's the cause why that big capacitor from my Schottky bridge-rectifier was destroyed:

and here I used a 12V/55W light-bulb (link to larger image here):

And here it's something which Cd_Sharp noticed, when using the 12W/55W light-bulb the waveform is looking very similar to Graham Gunderson's device waveform (link to larger image here):

Here is a video recorded during these two tests:

Then I used one 0.25 ohms current-sensing resistor (half of a shunt I borrowed from Cd_Sharp) to check the DC input.

In the first test I connected the ground of oscilloscope's probe to the resistor connection going the the DC source's positive and the probe itself to the resistor connection going to the ZPM (more specific to the MOSFET driver) and this is the result (link to larger image here):

In the second test I rotated oscilloscope's probe: I connected the ground of oscilloscope's probe to the resistor connection going the the going to the ZPM (more specific to the MOSFET driver) and the probe itself to the resistor connection going the the DC source's positive and this is the result (link to larger image here):

In these two tests I noticed something strange, the shunt can also show current's direction, so when rotating the ground and the probe of the oscilloscope we should see Vrms positive in one case then we should see Vrms negative in the other case.

Take a look here, observe how oscilloscope's probe is connected in each photo and the Vrms value in each photo. Vrms is never negative so, correct me if I'm wrong, but seems the current is going in both directions in that resistor, one direction is from DC source to the ZPM (which is normal) but also in the other direction from ZPM to the DC source:

(link to larger image here)

(link to larger image here)

Seems to me that while the DC source is powering ZPM in the same time ZPM is also sending power back to the DC source (don't know how it's possible to send power back to the DC source through the MOSFET driver).

This could be another explanation for DC source's "confusion" and also could be a explanation for the following experiment I've made where ZPM seems to show negative consumption if I may say so:

 

And the last test I've made was also to use the Aluminum 1Ohm/100W resistor as a shunt to check the input (link to larger image here):

 

What's next and I hope I will have some time today (it's 46 a.m.) to do is to calibrate the other two oscilloscope probes and to get a synchronized image on the oscilloscope on all four channels with what's happening on:

  • DC source's output;
  • the small coil ("L);
  • the bigger coil ("R");
  • the output (where the light-bulbs are connected).

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Chris posted this 28 July 2019

Hey Fighter,

Very nice! Nice scope those Rigol's!

Good thorough installation. Yes either way, the Grounds need to be isolated and your method is a much better way to do it!

Where are you looking at the waveform? on the output I am guessing?

EDIT: I zooming in, I see its the output Voltage. Can you please post an image of the gate voltage on the Mosfet and a circuit of where you're measuring please?

I believe what you've build is significant, don't listen to others which may poopoo it! Lets get it measures properly.

   Chris

Fighter posted this 28 July 2019

Hi Chris,

Thanks, yes it's a nice scope, I like it and I must admit I was inspired to buy it after watching Cd_Sharp's videos, it's the same model

The only problem is I consumed the investments in my project for the next 2-3 months so for a while I'll need to stay chill and don't buy equipment or electronic components for it. But I think it's okay, for now I have all what I need for the project.

I'm trying to accommodate as fast as possible with how to operate it, it's very different than my DSO203 pocket oscilloscope, I must be very carefully to not blow it, fortunately there are many tutorials on Youtube for this specific model so I hope my learning curve will be fast...

From what I understood while making research on this the oscilloscope itself should still be grounded but everything else from the circuit being measured (in my case the DC source) should be floating (not grounded). I hope I understood correctly and my current setup is correct.

That waveform is taken with the probe connected to the ZPM's output (more specific to the light-bulb's pins).

Sure, I'll prepare the measurement you're suggesting today probably afternoon, right now it's 4:47 a.m. here and I'm too tired, I don't want to make a mistake and blow the scope or something else...

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Bogdan2k posted this 28 July 2019

Hi Fighter,

regards from Bucharest, congrats for experimenting and sharing. If I may suggest, to measure the light output for a filament bulb, even with a luxmeter (and almost all kinds of light bulb) it`s not a appropriate way to measure the power consumption. There is a ton of info on the internet, that states that high freq and high voltage gives more light output than straight DC. (the HPS bulbs have better efficiency with digital sources, driven and 20khz, instead on 50hz or 60hz, and also Gavita DE is powered at 400V instead of 230, and this also raisses the efficiency of the system with about 30-50% than 230V at line frequency.) There is also info about AU researchers in the field that were fooled this way.

Also to measure with DMM at such a high freq is not optimal as stated by Chris also (and if I`m not mistaken they are made for sinusoidal signal only), and you can`t see the phase angle this way. I believe that even probing with oscilloscopes, at a low power system, can influence the readings (also a lot of AU researchers fooled this way, even by the WIFI or background radiation). That wattmeter you have from optimusdigital is crap, I have few of them also and when I connect at the load a SMPS power supply, the device for sure doesn`t have any EMI protection and the displayed data is disappearing from time to time, trust me that`s a no no.

The best way I know, to measure power, is always to convert it to filtered DC (place large litic caps after the FWBR)  and measure amps and voltage this way. Also, to be sure that the mosfet driver sourcing current to the system, is not a problem, just pump more juice in the system (at more than 50W input power, you can be sure that the mosfet driver curent is negligible for the total system power consumption).

Also, to measure power output from the power supply, connect two large litic capacitor in parallel with the output and between them place a resistor (measure the voltage drop and you now know for sure the power consumption). 

Also in this way measure the output to the load and you`ll have a much closer picture of what is going on.

Have a nice weekend!

 

 

 

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Fighter posted this 28 July 2019

Hi Chris,

I've finished the measurement for MOSFET's gate, sorry but I had some troubles: after I opened the MOSFET driver's box while trying to attach oscilloscope's probe I think I've made a short which burned the MOSFET of the second channel of the driver and damaged it because the DC source entered in protection mode and stayed this way until I removed that MOSFET from the driver:

I needed to make assessment of the situation and found out that the oscilloscope's channel and probe are okay, the signal generator is okay, the only damage was that MOSFET which is okay because I only use one channel of the MOSFET driver for now. Of course de-soldering that MOSFET, removing it from radiator and isolating the wires which made connections to it took a lot of time.

After that I checked that everything is working like before.

EDIT: @Chris, please disregard the following measurements, as Vidura pointed out (in his latest post here) they are wrong, I did the measurements again and posted them again, please check my latest post.

Then I took the ground clip of the yellow channel and connected it to the drain of the MOSFET and I connected the probe itself to the gate of the MOSFET. Then I connected the blue channel's probe to the ZPM's output, more specific to the pins of the light-bulb as before (link to larger image here):

This is the schema of how I connected oscilloscope's probes (link to larger image here):

Photos taken during measurements, just to mention - duty-cycle is 25% like before (link to larger image here):

And here are two photos of the oscilloscope's display.

In the first photo I'm showing the measurements for the probe connected to MOSFET (yellow waveform and measurements) and in the second photo I'm showing measurements for both probes (blue waveform and blue measurements are for the probe connected to the outpot on light-bulb's pins):

(link to larger image here):

Something what I noticed is that Vpp = 240V on MOSFET's drain, how is this even possible as IRFPN250N's maximum voltage is 200V ?..

Fighter posted this 28 July 2019

Hi Bogdan,

Thank you and welcome to our community. Are you making research ? If yes here you can share your experiments and results.

Related to approximation of power using light-bulbs, in this case is not only the luminosity, there is real power on output, if I connect the light-bulbs using wires with lower diameter (AWG) the wires becomes so hot that their plastic enclosure is starting to melt. All my wires are multifilar so it's not the high-frequency making them hot (as could happen with solid wires because of the so called skin-effect).

The DC source's output is DC of course, it's not high-frequency pulsed, that's the job of the MOSFET driver receiving signal from the signal generator; on DC source's output I used also a filter made from a fast Schottky diode on the positive output and a big 10,000uF/60V electrolytic capacitor to protect the DC source against possible noise coming back from MOSFET driver but the source's readings remain the same.

In one of my previous posts (made 19 hours ago) I measured input using more current-sensing resistors, what's curious about measurements it's the fact that I cannot detect the direction of the current: Vrms is always positive no matter how I put oscilloscope's probe on those resistors; seems to me that the DC source is powering the ZPM but in the same time the ZPM is sending power back to the source. As you can see in that post, through the current-sensing resistors there seems to be currents going in both directions.

Have a nice evening too.

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Vidura posted this 28 July 2019

Hey Fighter, thanks for sharing your work, I have noted that you could bring down the frequency to around 100kHz, and a smaller duty cycle. This is certainly can advantage for the switch, as it will run cooler. If I may, for testing the gate waveform the scope ground should be connected to the source of the MOSFET,.As there is different probe ground needed for the output signal you have to test the signals separately. Anyway your scope shots show a reversal in the output polarity at the moment of switching off. Also a ringing is present which seems to produce a pulstrain. Regarding the voltage it is likely that the transistor is at the limit of its capabilities, or even avalanching already. If the pulses are short the device might support values above the maximum rated, but could be stressed and failure prematurely. You could try with an alternative with higher voltage rating. Regards Vidura.

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Fighter posted this 28 July 2019

@Vidura, you're welcome, that's why I'm here to share my work and also to learn. And you're right, my previous measurements are wrong, after I removed that broken MOSFET from driver I designed the measurement scheme wrong then I just followed the scheme.

I just did the measurements again and I'm gonna post the info below.

Thanks for the idea about duty-cycle and frequency, I'll try another combination of these parameters to lower down the temperature in the MOSFET driver's radiator 'cause right now I can run tests for about 5-7 minutes before needing to shotdown and let that radiator to cool down. I was already thinking to put an 12V cooler inside the box, I already have a constant voltage source inside powering the LED indicator. Nice idea, thanks !

@Chris, please disregard the measurements section from my previous post, I'm adding updated measurements below.

So I connected the yellow probe to the MOSFET: probe's ground to the source and the probe itself to the gate (link to larger image here):

This measurement's schema is the following (link to larger image here):

The MOSFET driver's switch is off so ZPM is not powered but the signal generator is on and is already sending signal to the MOSFET which is shown by the oscilloscope (link to larger image here):

Then after turning MOSFET driver's switch on the ZPM is powered on and the readings from the MOSFET are in the next image (link to larger image here):

Then I disconnected the yellow probe then moved on to measure the output again: I connected the blue probe to the output, more specific to the light-bulb's pins (link to larger image here):

This is the schema of the output measurement (link to larger image here):

And this is the output measurement, it's the same as I posted it last night - looking like Graham Gunderson's device output (link to larger image here):

And also for later references I'm putting here again the identical output measurement I've made yesterday but made with a 12V/5W light-bulb on output - notice the Vpp = 164V (link to larger image here):

Jagau posted this 29 July 2019

Very interesting experiment

Jagau

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patrick1 posted this 29 July 2019

i have a question...  can you link me too that metglass core ?. i think i want too back you fighter with a replication

there is a few around but i mayaswell get the same size and model

my replication of this in the mrpreva thread worked ok, but not this well. - i was using a flyback core

i have been trying the last week too make it happen with different circuits, - both h bridge and only positive offset's .  but ultimatley i cannot get the core into magnetic resonance even with correction capacitors, - iron is going too take some work, or, perhaps delayed conduction manually., - but i dont quite know how too go about it , even though i suspect i have the tools on hand too maniuplate the waves ;-0)

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Jagau posted this 29 July 2019

Hi fighter


if you are looking for a high performance optocoupler up to 2 MHZ
go with the 6N36 and 6nN36 according to your needs.


For your first question:


Maybe it works by using ferrite cores and using much lower frequencies, I'm just describing what I'm using in my research now.

Yes it works very well with a ferrite, to have tried it some time ago.


For your results it seems that one approaches both.

We are on right track

Sorry not to see answered before I was very busy


Jagau

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Fighter posted this 29 July 2019

@Patrick, sure, it's produced by Hitachi Metals but I bought it from Poland, this is the link to the site:

https://www.dacpol.eu/en/cores-amorphous-53825/product/hitachi-cores-made-form-amorphous-metglas-materials#sklep

In that page if you click "Check ?" button for a specific core it will show to you how many pieces they have in stock (right now I see they have 238 AMCC-200 cores). Also at the top of the page (near "Net price in" text) you can change the currency from Polish currency to EUR or USD so you can check the prices in these currencies.

My model is AMCC-200, this is a photo I took when I received it (link to larger image here):

But depending on your location maybe you may find it in other places closer to you, I chosen Poland because it's a neighbor country of Romania.

About dimensions, here is a draft I've made for CNC when I ordered the pieces for the coils supports, you can see the exact dimensions at the top of the page (link to larger image here):

And here are links to my files about Metglas technical specs:

www.mediafire.com/view/br72p82tejjj7ur/Hitachi_-_AMCC_Cores_Technical.pdf

www.mediafire.com/view/e03cy06x1ao1yb0/Hitachi_-_AMCC_Cores-1.pdf

I'm just guessing here but I think the problem with pure iron cores is that they tend to remain magnetized for a while even if the coil is not producing magnetic field anymore, it's the normal behavior of any iron object. So the magnetic field is not collapsing too fast after the coil is disconnected from power.

On the other side Metglas even if it's still containing iron too when the coil is interrupted the magnetic field in the core is collapsing faster, that's one of the advantages of this type of (amorphous alloy) cores. But you can check the characteristics of Metglas cores in those technical documents I posted here.

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Fighter posted this 29 July 2019

@Jagau, no worries; interesting, thank you for the info I'm gonna check these optocouplers and where I can find them to buy.

So this would work with ferrite too, it's good to know as it would significantly drop the building costs of this kind of device.

Thank you.

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YoElMiCrO posted this 29 July 2019

Hi all.

@Fighter. After performing numerous tests I think I understand the reason why the phenomenon is created. In a few days I will publish what I have seen, so we can all contrast whether it is real or fictitious.

Thank you all in advance.

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Fighter posted this 29 July 2019

@YoElMiCrO, thank you, I'm very curious to see additional test results. You're more than welcome to publish them here.

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Chris posted this 30 July 2019

My Friends,

There are three things here that need attention:

 

  • Red: Input Pulse, On Time.
  • Green: Inductive Collapse.
  • Orange: The Sawtooth Waveform we are seeking, another pumping phase on the Output otherwise not present.

 

Keep up the excellent work Fighter!

   Chris

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Atti posted this 30 July 2019

Hi.

The shape of the waveform is probably not inverted.

And?

He may have changed shape.

cd_sharp posted this 30 July 2019

Hey, guys, that is assymetrical regauging, impossible to miss. One more confirmation, Fighter.

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patrick1 posted this 30 July 2019

nice one boys !!.  momentum is good!

checkout this bargain from china ( same core for half the price ).  https://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/Medium-frequency-transformer-amorphous-c-shaped_60531008579.html

il let you know if it pans out, - i have only made request thus far, - but will open my wallet if it pans out.

it appears too be an equivalent model, down too 2% error margin,. let me be the first too say woop woop

Fighter posted this 30 July 2019

@Chris, @Cd_Sharp: Thank you guys, still more research needs to be done but personally I feel like I started to see the light at the end of this long and difficult road...

@Patrick: If that core have the same characteristics like those produced by Hitachi Metals then the price is good. If you live in Europe then customs from your country will ask you to pay the VTA (so the cost will increase depending of the value of the VTA in your country), be prepared for that. 2% difference in dimensions doesn't really matter, my only concern is, talking about Chinese suppliers, if the characteristics are the same. No offense intended to Chinese people but it's a fact, if they took a "shortcut" in the production process to cut the costs/price there could be some differences. Hope everything will be okay, Patrick, crossed-fingers

Fighter posted this 30 July 2019

@Atti: What's the device producing that output waveform ? If you don't mind to provide some details, I'm just curious. Thanks.

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Atti posted this 31 July 2019

Fighter and everyone.
I only try to study the effects.
Existing measurements do not always have to take out real events, but only the possibility of the effect-effect, its further use.
(You have to be very careful with the actual performance measurement! Measurement is always a guess for some quantity.)

There are cases (usually for the most part) where the transformer has the same operation as the motor generator.
The primary and secondary windings can be replaced in the same way. The switching time is also different, but the implementation is different.

In this section, we investigate how the shape of the signal and its potential effect on the input coil is affected by another voltage change.
- Here's the question:
-What are the facts that can cause a voltage change?
- How much current do you have?
-Can you get extra performance?
- To what extent does it affect my power supply?

This fact is the rotation of the permanent magnet at the motor.
The excitation of the voltage resulting from the rotation of the permanent magnet can be clearly seen in the oscillogram. In the case of a transformer, the associated output coils should be considered here. The timing of this (on and off) is also an important factor. But the primary on and off. The two on and off systems are now controlled as a single system. The use of a band should be pursued. The effect of load current change is clearly visible in this video.

-At the transformer, the associated output coils.
Timed switching of coils and its effects.Chris constantly refers to this.
The magnetic polarities are the same for both. The north is opposite the north polarity. Or vice versa.
Setting the time for both (motor generator or transformer) is very important.

A character Adams engine generator.


There is only one coil (primer) per iron column. Right and left.
The poles of the permanent magnet on the rotor are the same, N-N-N-N.
The coils are connected in series (N-N) and the measurement is made on only one coil. The load is diode-wound.
With proper timing, the rotor rotation speed will increase. Otherwise, it will slow down.

This is an older video.

it for short.

glennmr2018 posted this 01 August 2019

hei YoElMiCrO! - This looks significant - i just checked up on 'esperado' = waiting (time) and 'adiabatic' = transfer of [...] between 2 bodies without any heat transfer! {Adiabatic definition: (of a thermodynamic process) taking place without loss or gain of heat}

thanx 4 sharing this!

Visualize the Shape of Things Not Yet Seen with Eyes !! ... .. .

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patrick1 posted this 02 August 2019

Gday Lads, - i have found there are several cores, similar too the one in question previously.

this is now the cheapest i have found, - i am ordering a few different models, - as i am of the belief that they should all work

along with many more common ferrite cores, - including many i already have, - but since they are large and cheap, its well worth a look.

Chris, your last post with the scope shot, - this is the input set of bucking coils.,  with no output load coils connected ?

https://pasteboard.co/IqP36d3.jpg

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Fighter posted this 02 August 2019

Hi guys,

I'm posting here one of Chris' posts from Measurements thread as I find it very important for ZPM. Basically is a confirmation that there are currents going in both directions in that shunt resistor I used when trying to measure the input and the ZPM is actually sending power back to the DC source because it "sees" the DC source as a load and it's trying to power it up. This could explain DC source's "confusion" in readings as its made only to power up loads not to receive power back from the loads.

My Friends,

In the below image, we see two numbers with a red line above them:

 

Both numbers are very different! Average or Mean: 172mV and Vrms or Voltage Root Mean Square: 610mV.

Importantly, we have a DC Power Supply! Direct Current meaning one way only! At lease if one is running a Linear Load like a Light Globe!

All Current below the faint turquoise line I have drawn in here:

 

is Negative Current, its below the Zero Graticule Line of the Probe measuring it.

The Root Mean Square is 610mV across a 0.25 Ohm Resistor, this is approximately: 59.512 Watts input to the ZPM.

At the same time the Scope is saying we have 172mV across a 0.25 Ohm Resistor, this is approximately: 17.082 Watts input the ZPM.

Both figures cant be right! So in this case which one do we trust?

We know Power is coming back at us, the ZPM sees the Source as a Load! The ZPM is trying to Power its load, being the Power Supply.

So what do we have? What are the facts?

  1. 172mV across a 0.25 Ohm Resistor, 0.688 Amps, approximately: 17.082 Watts input the ZPM.
  2. 610mV across a 0.25 Ohm Resistor, 2.44 Amps, approximately: 59.512 Watts input to the ZPM.

 

 

NOTE: RMS is always positive, it does not give an indication of the direction of power.

Now, I ask others to correct me if I am wrong!

You should use Mean, which is an integration ( Addition ) of the instantaneous power readings ( each sampling point on your screen ) over as many Cycles you have on your screen, which is time, which yields total Energy for this time interval.

This is because your DUT is Non-Linear, and your Source is DC, the DUT sending Power back to Power the DC Source!

With a Linear Load, and an AC Source, you should use RMS most of the time.

   Chris

 

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Chris posted this 02 August 2019

Hey Fighter,

This is correct! The RMS Values are including the Power being returned back to the Source and not giving you an indication of the Direction of Current.

Direct Current, is a unidirectional Current, its not supposed to Alternate over Time or it is then AC, Alternating Current.

E.G: The scope records: 0123456789876543210.

Now we Integrate ( Series addition ) : 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 8 + 7 + 6 + 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 + 0 = 81.

Now divide by the number of points recorded: 81 / 19 = ‭4.26315789.

‭4.26315789 is the average.

 

What does this mean? It means we can split the Triangle above the Mean line, down the middle, and put the two sides in the open area on the ends, the area is the same. This gives us a perfect Mean value. The shown RMS Value you can see is well above the mean height! There is no even distribution of the Waveform above the RMS value to the ends of the Wave shape. The area is not equal to the open area on the sides under the line!

The reason straight DC is so easy to measure is because its a straight line:

 

 

The area under the Straight Line, the Waveform is a Rectangular Box: H x W = Area. 977.7mV x 1t = 977.7mV

 

NOTE: The ZPM is a NON-Linear Load.

Now in the ZPM, if we use RMS, we cant include Power coming back as USED Power, which is what RMS power setting is doing! This is wrong!

Also NOTE: RMS is fine for Linear Loads! It will measure almost the same as Mean! See Here.

RMS is Root Mean Square, the equation is fairly straight forward:

 

See www.electronics-tutorials.ws for much better information on all this.

So we could say:

int TotalPoints = 19;
double Integration = Math.Pow(0, 2) + Math.Pow(1, 2)
                   + Math.Pow(2, 2) + Math.Pow(3, 2)
                   + Math.Pow(4, 2) + Math.Pow(5, 2)
                   + Math.Pow(6, 2) + Math.Pow(7, 2)
                   + Math.Pow(8, 2) + Math.Pow(9, 2)
                   + Math.Pow(8, 2) + Math.Pow(7, 2)
                   + Math.Pow(6, 2) + Math.Pow(5, 2)
                   + Math.Pow(4, 2) + Math.Pow(3, 2)
                   + Math.Pow(2, 2) + Math.Pow(1, 2) + Math.Pow(0, 2);

double Average = Integration / TotalPoints;

MessageBox.Show("RMS: " + Math.Sqrt(Average));

RMS: 5.07314913098986

 

Note: a small difference: 5.07314913 RMS vs 4.26315789 Mean, the difference: ‭0.80999124‬. The values often vary a little between RMS and Mean, but with a Non-Linear-Load, Mean must be used.

Note: I have used the same numbers in this example, RMS Voltage and Mean Voltage readings on the scope can be different, so please be aware this example is only that, an example.

Note: (81 / 19)2 is not the same as squaring each number and adding.

Again, RMS does not give you an indication of the Direction of Power, the reading is always Positive, the Mean or Average setting is not this way! Mean can be Positive, Negative or Zero. Zero means all the Power you send Out to your Load ( DUT ) You get the exact same back again! 1 + -1 = 0...

For some it may seem impossible, but Electromagnetic Induction really does work!

Now I am not perfect I make mistakes! So I urge you to all do your own research on this! Research how to measure the Area under a Curve (  Scope Waveform ) and find out more on this. I did post several very good videos on this!

Remember: Every pixel drawn on your scope screen, it is a Potential Value Recorded. Millions of values measured then recorded of that Potential over Time. All these values, in the Scope Buffer, indicate Instantaneous Power measured over time, this is the X Axis, the values themselves are the Y Axis, Amplitude.

Some time back I was very lucky, a very good friend of mine gave me one on one lessons on how to use a scope. Thanks Gerry!

I hope the knowledge I gained I am now able to pass on to you so you can also pass on.

   Chris

 

P.S: a better code example if you want to play with this:

double Integration = 0.0;

double[] Points = new double[] { 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 8.0, 7.0, 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.0 };

for (int i = 0; i < Points.Length; i++)
    Integration += Math.Pow((Points[i]), 2);

double Mean = Integration / Points.Length;

MessageBox.Show("RMS: " + Math.Sqrt(Mean));

 

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Fighter posted this 02 August 2019

Hi guys,

I'm going to vacation for two weeks so I'll not be able to do experiments for a while. But before going I wanted to take with me a screenshot of all the signals in ZPM in the same time to see the interaction between coils depending on input signal and how the output depends on all these so I can understand those interactions and think about them for possible efficiency improvements.

As you know all the ground clips from the four channels of the oscilloscope are linked together so it's not possible to just put oscilloscope's probes on input, coils and output in the same time because that would short-circuit them but the idea was to put each probe at a time while keeping the base-time so at the end the waveforms can be unified in a single image.

So I'll post images with every measurement (including measurement schema) and at the end I'll post the "unified" image.

This is for input, basically the signal on the MOSFET's gate as the function generator is driving it (link to larger image here):

This is for "L" coil, the smaller coil (link to larger image here):

This is for "R" coil, the bigger coil (link to larger image here):

And this is for output, basically coil "L" plus coil "R (link to larger image here):

And this is the "unified" image, tried to sync the scope images to show the waveforms from each measurement with a common time-base. As you can see each measurement has 2 microseconds time-base but be aware about the amplitude of each waveform, that's changed for each measurement in order to show more details.So in order to compare the amplitudes of waveforms check the Vpp value for each, I placed a red rectangle on that value in each image (link to larger image here):

Also I found a strange thing about the device, it seems to have "preferences" on how it's powering the loads.

But it's very late now and I need to prepare the presentation of my finding (including a scheme), I'll do it tomorrow.

Until then take a look on this image and observer the two smaller light-bulbs (12V/5W); they are placed in parallel on ZPM's output just like the bigger light-bulb (12V/55W) and the wires connecting them to the output are identical. The only difference between them : one is connected on ZPM's output before the 12V/55W light-bulb while the other is connected after the 12V/55W light-bulb. Even if these two 12V/5W light-bulbs are connected to the ZPM's ouptut, the luminosity of one is much stronger than the luminosity of the other. Maybe there is a conventional explanation for this but I did some research and didn't found that explanation. It's like Mr. Preva experiment but both light-bulbs (with different luminosity) are actually on the same branch (link to larger image here):

 

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Chris posted this 03 August 2019

Hey Fighter,

Excellent effort as always. Thank you.

Next time, when you get time, if you're able to supply the Voltage and Current measurements for that node:

Input:

 

 

Already done.

 

Output:

 

 

As you already know, measurements need to be Mean or Average, see here.

   Chris

 

P.S: I was sortta hoping others would join in on this?

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Vidura posted this 03 August 2019

Hey all, When I was in Europe last week o had ordered two AMCC cores, but they didn't arrive in time, for one day late I couldn't bring them in this journey. As you might know in my place there are no sellers for this material, so I don't know still when I can get the core to give this experiment a try. Hopefully some others who have access to Metglass cores will join and help to bring more light on this. Vidura

patrick1 posted this 03 August 2019

cool ,  - well hopfully i will have caught up by the time you get back. -   just too confirm though, you are using a square wave input. - of about 25% ?, -  do you have much margin for error with that figure ?.   .   also any other buttock clenching facts you can think might help ?

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Fighter posted this 03 August 2019

yes, square wave input. duty-cycle right now is 25% but before it was working also with 50%. about tips, I can think of only one thing right now, the procedure of finding the optimal frequency specific to your device, you will need to do frequency sweep 'cause for sure it will not be the same like the frequency of my device:

Fighter posted this 03 August 2019

Guys, I'll postpone the presentation of that anomaly about different light-bulbs luminosity, I'm out of time for now, preparing 'cause tomorrow I'll be on road the entire day, I'll post it within the next few days.

Vidura posted this 03 August 2019

When reviewing the latest scope shots posted by Fighter I found the following detail very interesting: It is about the ringing, with a frequency around 4Mhz; it called my attention that the first spike is synchronous with the BEMF when the switch turns off, at the peak of the "sine" wave, then the consecutive pulses are in the second quadrant of the wave( although it is not a sine shape, but pretty distortional ). We saw a similar effect in devices from Akula, Ruslan, and various others BTW coil builders, the pulses are applied in the falling potential area, when the magnetic force is building up. In the particular case of Fighters device the pulstrain could be caused by a coupling to the gate signal, triggered by the BEMF pulse. Of course this is only an assumption for the moment, until we get more testing results, trying some variations to determine how the effects are produced.

Vidura

Fighter posted this 06 August 2019

@Vidura, Yes I saw the same signal on others devices but I don't see a section of the signal having frequency so high (4Mhz), could you give more details ? Thanks.

And here is the anomaly I was talking about, basically when placing on the output of the ZPM three light-bulbs (two 12V/5W and one 12V/55W) the device seems to have a preference in how it powers up these light-bulbs.

More specific, the two 12V/5W light-bulbs are connected to the output using identical wires (just different colors - white and green) but their luminosity is different depending on their order. Basically the luminosity of the 12V/5W light-bulb placed after the 12V/55W light-bulb is much lower than the luminosity of a identical light-bulb placed before the 12V/55W light-bulb.

In the following images you can see details. As I said I was looking for a conventional explanation but didn't found one for the device's preference but I find it very intriguing (link to larger image here):

Jagau posted this 06 August 2019

Hi fighter
I am just doing tests on coils not wound on metglass but on ferrite, in connection with your setup.
I noticed strange effects and I realized that the impedance of the load made a big difference in performance.
I am trying to check different scenarios. We talk again...
Jagau

Fighter posted this 06 August 2019

I absolutely agree. Every time I put a different load I need to adjust the frequency, there is a optimal frequency for each type of load. But in this case the optimal frequency is already set but still I have two 12V/5W light-bulbs having different luminosity depending on their place related to the 12V/55W light-bulb on the ZPM's output. That's why I call this an anomaly because all those light-bulbs being powered from the same wires they should share the output power equally so both 12V/5W light-bulbs should have equal luminosity. But as you can see it's not working like this, the device seems to have some kind of preference in how it's providing its output power.

Chris posted this 06 August 2019

Hey Guys,

I am in firm belief Fighter has a machine that is well worth further experimentation!

I published a very similar circuit many years ago ( April 17, 2014 ) and no one took any notice: Akula0083 30 Watt Self Running Generator

 

The Scope shot is of the Input Current ( Yellow ) and Output Voltage ( Red ). You can see, the Area, already discussed, under the Red Trace to Zero, is well more than 1x the Input Current. Its almost 3 times as much.

When one has the Circuit tuned right, amazing things were seen, low frequency experiments were noisy and one could tell there was a lot of Magnetic Field Opposition.

If people want to learn, these very simple experiments can yield a lot of information! Simple and Cheap! Only taking a few hours to really get a good bite!

No one realised Akula was doing the same thing. A narrow, 0.5% duty Cycle pulse in some cases were enough to find the resonant point.

   Chris

Chris posted this 06 August 2019

Hey Guys,

Fundamental Fact:

  1. Voltage is a direct result of the Change of the Magnetic Fields! 
  2. Current comes from the equal and opposite Force of Magnetic Fields!
  3. Two fundamental different things!

 

Lets be smart about this! Two Coils, we drive one, what do we want to occur, a pumping of Current well beyond our Input Stage. 

The Coils must Buck, its an evident fact and all here should know this already. Others, visitors, are still in an educational stage.

At a Coil Resonance, we can put a small, efficient pulse in, and get a big pulse out. The machines tagged as: ABOVEUNITY are examples of this. When we get a good output measurement on Fighters DUT then we can add this Tag.

Jagau is correct:

 

I noticed strange effects and I realized that the impedance of the load made a big difference in performance.
I am trying to check different scenarios.

 

Of course this is correct!

The Magnetic Fields are only going to pump properly if they are loaded sufficiently!

Remember: The Magnetic Field is Current flowing in a Wire. No Current, No Magnetic Field!

I wish others would get onboard and replicate these simple machines!

   Chris

Vidura posted this 07 August 2019

Hey Fighter and all, The effect that the light bulbs on different connected points (or different wire length) have unequal luminosity is a sign for standing waves at high frequencies. Comparable with Tesla's experience when he shorted a transmission line at one point with a thick copper bar and had at another point of the line light bulbs lit.

Atti posted this 07 August 2019

Hey Fighter.

 

That's why I call this an anomaly because all those light-bulbs being powered from the same wires they should share the output power equally so both 12V/5W light-bulbs should have equal luminosity. But as you can see it's not working like this, the device seems to have some kind of preference in how it's providing its output power.

 

In my opinion, this is a parallel R-L resonance. Changing the bulb value also changes the cut-off frequency.
In the case of parallel switching, the voltage is the sum of the two circuits.
As a result, iR in phase with the resistor is formed, and iL is 90 ° late in inductance.

The impedance and phase angle of the parallel circuit are frequency dependent.
It would be nice to have an oscilloscope diagram where the two values are visible at the same time (current and voltage).
This would allow us to infer what is actually happening.
The figure only shows one roll, but in reality you have two rolls.

Párhuzamos RL kapcsolás mérési ábrája

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Chris posted this 07 August 2019

Atti,

I think you might be surprised when replicating this.

I don't entirely agree, your post is not aligned with what's going on in these devices.

Resonance yes, phase shift no.

   Chris 

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Atti posted this 07 August 2019

Chris.

Probably. Nevertheless, a trial measurement would be worth it. Unfortunately, I don't have a Metglas core.

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Chris posted this 07 August 2019

Hey Atti,

Yes I too always like to see a scope shot or two.

My work in this area show V and I to be less than 1-5 degrees.

I hope this helps!

   Chris

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patrick1 posted this 11 August 2019

Ive been watching, tonight, a bunch of video;s external too HYIQ members. , some good results everywhere. -

My best results thus far came tonight,  - series bucking coils on ferrite core. with parallel  PSU and globes...   COP2 , with sine waves and square waves. - but i im trying too work out if i can stick in a diode, like meyers circuit, and get more gains....  he was using ferrite. but also a series inductor..... -- i really want too fast track my learning untill my metglas arrives next week.

YoElMiCrO posted this 16 August 2019

Hello everyone.

I think I know how it is possible to extract energy from the vacuum.
It turns out that the magnetic permeability behavior
It has a region in which it is negative!
As if it were a tunnel diode, it also has it.
Only in this, we draw the current from the source and its
behavior as an amplifier is real.
Because the negative region in ferromagnetic materials
It is expressed by permeability, it interacts with the vacuum.
Here the graph of their behavior.


This image is just a sample of how permeability changes
depending on the current through the inductor that makes up the system,
It is merely illustrative.
That is why there are two operating points, one is static and depends on the
load, and other dynamic and depends on the frequency.
I continue with the experiments that prove that the OU is possible, it is still a
Hypothesis not a theory.
It would not violate any thermodynamic law because it extracts the energy of an entity
We still don't understand.

@Fighter.
I still do tests to understand your experiment, but everything has to do
with magnetic permeability and standing waves.
The turns ratios must be quadratic because the inductance is.
This means that the turns ratios will be the root of 0.75, 0.5 or 0.25 of lambda for
one of your inductors N2 = SQR (n) N1, where n is one of the previous numbers.

Thank you all in advance.
YoElMiCrO.

Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

@YoElMiCrO: In my current setup "L" coil has approx. 150 turns and "R" coil approx. 300 turns.

N2 = 150 turns, N1 = 300 turns.

So N2 = 0.5 * N1 = SQR(0.25) * N1, it matches the case where n = 0.25.

Other configurations would be:

1. N2 = SQR(0.5) * N1 = 0.70 * 300 = 210 turns for coil L where n = 0.5; Lturns / Rturns = 210/300;

2. N2 = SQR(0.75) * N1 = 0.86 * 300 = 258 turns for coil L where n = 0.75; Lturns / Rturns = 258/300.

Of course N1 can be increased or decreased too, I just calculated for N1 = 300 turns where I want to keep "R" coil as it is now and just modify "L1" coil.

Interesting, very interesting... If your hypothesis is confirmed we may have a formula to design any configuration for this device. I wonder which case is better in terms of efficiency.

patrick1 posted this 4 weeks ago

@YoElMiCrO

Fascinating theory.  i will admit, my first impressions were a little different. - i was thinking more on the lines that.

this resonant concept is perfectly normal, just like any other, however we have managed too buy some magic cores, that allow for the high frequencies. and furthermore, unlike previously possible, we have a core that can resonate with the coil, and reinforce the osculations amplitude under load.  does that make sense ?

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi guys, finally I had some time to make the measurements I promised before going to vacation.

So I used a 0.25 Ohm non-inductive resistor (half of a shunt I borrowed from Cd_Sharp).

Just a note: the effect of introducing in circuit the resistor and the oscilloscope is that I need to find another optimal frequency for the device so for each measurement you have also a photo of the frequency on the signal generator screen; also for each measurement you have a schema showing how oscilloscope's probes are connected.

In the images below the blue channel is voltage and the yellow channel is current (the channel is put in parallel on the current-sensing resistor).

First I've made measurements on input (link to larger image here):

Then I've made measurements on output (link to larger image here):

According to some previous discussions related to measurements made before where we saw current going in both directions through the resistor connected on input the conclusion was that ZPM is "seeing" the DC source as a load and it's actually sending power back to it so I was thinking it's a good idea to also make measurement of the current sent back by ZPM to the DC source; notice in the measurement schema below that the position of the yellow channel probe is inverted (link to larger image here):

Also you remember that before going to vacation I posted here a photo about a anomaly where the device seems to power preferentially the light-bulbs put on its output ? Like in this image where a 12V/5W light-bulb placed directly on device's coils is illuminating stronger than another 12V/5W light-bulb connected after a 12V/55W light-bulb ? This photo (link to larger image here):

I wanted to see what's going on on the output so I connected one channel from the oscilloscope directly on device's coils and another channel on light-bulb's pins as following (link to larger image here):

Blue channel is connected directly on ZPM's coils while the yellow channel is connected on the light-bulb's pins.

So I didn't measured the current but I measured the voltage only. As you can see (marked with red rectangle on the image of the oscilloscope's screen) on the same wire there is a Vpp difference of 36 volts between its beginning and its end. I didn't knew it's possible to have voltage difference in the same wire when its length is just 30-40 centimeters.

The only explanation I can find about this anomaly is related to those mysterious standing waves as Vidura noticed:

Hey Fighter and all, The effect that the light bulbs on different connected points (or different wire length) have unequal luminosity is a sign for standing waves at high frequencies. Comparable with Tesla's experience when he shorted a transmission line at one point with a thick copper bar and had at another point of the line light bulbs lit.

Vidura posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey Fighter,
In my interpretation of the measurements we have on the Output, where we have to use the RMS values, as power is dissipated bidirectional by the lightbulb: 1.16 / 0.25 = 4.64Arms x 8.97Vrms = 41,62W
and on the input we use the average: 0.373/0.25= 1.492Aavg x 25.5V = 38.04W

Regarding the different Power on different points of the circuit I will do a post soon , as this is related to standing waves, a very important phenomenon to study.

Regards VIDURA.

 

 

Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Vidura, I'm very interested about your post about standing waves.

Considering that voltage difference from my 4th measurement (Vpp almost double on ZPM's coils compared to light-bulb's pins) I wonder how the output measurement would look like if I would place the resistor near the ZPM's coils). Based on what I saw there maybe the Vrms will be double ? Don't know but it worth a try.

Also I compared the Vrms measured today with the Vrms measured before only with the oscilloscope without the resistor:

Previous Vrms (link to larger image here):

Today Vrms (link to larger image here):

Seems the resistor on output has negative impact on voltage, the difference is 10.7Vrms - 8.97Vrms = 1.73Vrms. Why is this happening ?

If we would use that previous voltage we would not have 41.62W on output, we would have 4.64Arms x 10.7Vrms = 49.64W. Is the resistor dissipating 8W ? It gets hot while measuring more than 30-40 seconds, is that heat the cause of that 8W difference ?

I will need to clarify this Vrms difference, maybe I'll repeat the measurements with 2 x 12V/55W light-bulbs.

I have the feeling that this method of measuring power even if it's standard method for usual devices it's not entirely matching this device's considering its strange behavior on output (36 Vpp difference in the same wire on output).

Anyway, even with today's measurement and calculation it would be 1.094 (almost 1.1) COP, does it mean that ZPM can be officially tagged with "ABOVEUNITY" tag ?

The machines tagged as: ABOVEUNITY are examples of this. When we get a good output measurement on Fighters DUT then we can add this Tag.

Is there agreement about this ?

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Chris posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey Fighter,

You have my Vote!

Purely Resistive Load, no phase angle to worry about! Figures look good!

 

Input:

 

Output:

 

Well done! Good work Fighter!

You have "Generated" a full: ‭3.574784‬ Watts above your Input for a COP: ‭1.09396

Calculator is attached in zip format below if you want to use it.

   Chris

Attached Files

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Vidura posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey Fighter
I agree that it looks promising, take in account that the Power dissipated by the current sensing resistor is included in the results, at least according to conventional physic's. I would like very much to see a input measurement with a RC filter in between the instruments(or scope) and the ZPM.  For comparison if the results mach and also if the ZPM perform  correctly if fed from a filtered input-capacitor array. 

When you are tuning the module you should monitor the Avg current and Voltage on the input, to find the point where you got the effect with a minimal inputpower. 

Good work Fighter!

Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Thanks guys !

You have "Generated" a full: ‭3.574784‬ Watts above your Input for a COP: ‭1.09396

It would look much better if I "convince" ZPM to not "see" the DC source as a load and to try to power it up At this point I have no idea how I can accomplish this, I need to think about it.

I would like very much to see a input measurement with a RC filter in between the instruments(or scope) and the ZPM.  For comparison if the results mach and also if the ZPM perform  correctly if fed from a filtered input-capacitor array. 

When you are tuning the module you should monitor the Avg current and Voltage on the input, to find the point where you got the effect with a minimal inputpower. 

I would try to prepare that when I get more time, possibly in weekend. But when I tried last time to put a choke coil on input's positive wire (before going to vacation) the ZPM didn't worked at all, the DC source entered in auto-protection mode, the voltage stabilizer which powers that LED in the MOSFET driver was burning and smoking and I had the impression the MOSFETS themselves didn't felt very well, they were heating up quickly so I did shutdown the experiment. The voltage stabilizer (powering that LED) is destroyed again

(link to larger image here)

The choke-coil has 80 turns of 0.8mm wire on ferrite core.

I think it's related to ZPM trying to send power back to the DC source, seems it doesn't like choke coils, but it's just a guess...

Also I have a question, is there any conventional explanation why introducing that current-sensing resistor in the output makes Vpp and Vrms drop ? I already know that the voltage is higher on ZPM's coils than on light-bulb pins (standing waves effect) but could the resistor have a role in the voltage drop too ?

Take a look at the next image and values highlighted with red rectangles, one is the output measurement made yesterday and other is just oscilloscope (without resistor) put directly on ZPM's coils (link to larger image here):

It's a 16Vpp voltage drop !

Based on what I observed in experiments until now maybe I should put the current-sensing resistor directly on ZPM's coils and measure output again there ? And also I'm thinking about to put the light-bulbs directly on ZPM's coils and eliminate those output wires which seems to degrade the output power ?

But again, how useful the output power would be if it can't be transmitted properly through wires, if it's degrading when using wires on output ?.. A lot of questions and decisions to make regarding further experiments and enhancements...

Edit: I have also another question which I wanted to ask but I always forgot: is there any scenario when a physical current limiter in a DC source can be tricked so the source is actually providing more current than the limit set on that current limiter ? I'm asking because I tried before several times to set the current limit to just 20mA while powering the ZPM and the source didn't entered in auto-protection mode as it usually does when testing the same scenario with let's say a 200mA light-bulb powered by the DC source. With ZPM the source doesn't enter in auto-protection mode but it does with that 200mA light-bulb.

This is the current limiter on my DC source:

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

This post is not related directly to ZPM but it's related to my first post from this thread.

I'm in the same time happy and sad.

I'm happy for proving that ZPM is over-unity even if the COP is not that great like I estimated initially (based on the DC source readings) but now my research is entering in another area I call "optimization and efficiency improvements". For ZPM this is just the beginning, I shared every information with as much as many details possible and I hope others will join me in this work.

In the same time I'm sad to see what's happening right now which is confirming what I said in my first post.

https://www.vox.com/2019/8/22/20828219/amazon-rainforest-wildfire-photos-fire-greenland

The Amazon forest (the lungs of our planet) is burning for few weeks now, below is just one of the satellite images.

The same thing is happening in Europe, Asia, Latin America even in Alaska and Greenland.

Just a note to remember why we're here and that we really have little time left on this planet, those 50 years left calculated by the scientific community is really a very optimistic scenario. In my opinion I think we have more likely just 20 years left.

And as i said in my first post here, there is no individual escape from what's coming, we either all use free-energy or... Because if just few hundreds people will use free-energy devices kept secret while other billions will still use coal and oil, those free-energy devices will not help them survive while massive fires or 7th grade hurricanes will come over their houses.

Research and share just like I do here.

Thank you...

Vidura posted this 4 weeks ago

For your last question, the current limiting circuit of a power supply take the current value from an internal measurement shunt, which is likely the same value that is output on the display, if this value can not be correctly sensed due to interference the limiting function will not be triggered.

the next question: if you put a voltage or current regulator on the output of the ZPM it will likely be destroyed , because the output is AC, HF at important power level. If I did not understand correctly the usage of the regulator  and led just tell me.

Regarding the choke on the positive wire:

the power supply have an internal capacitor(or more of them) on the output, this is the part which supposedly interacts with the ZPM, delivering and receiving power. The choke will prevent this interaction if you dont put an other capacitor(or more) as replacement on the side of the ZPM. For a better shielding you must put another choke on the GND wire, then you can measure the power transfer between the Power supply and the filter, as a much smoother dc like wave, less prone to math errors than the irregular AC wave without filtering. this is the reason for my suggestion.

It might not be desirable to prevent the returning power to the supply or capacitor , as this returned power replaces the most of the inputpower.

As in many of this kind of devices the output load is an important factor for tuning, so it is not as easy to just plug in any load and it will work. But there are technical solutions to solve this problem, and "show " the device a constant load, so it maintains tuned.

I hope to have answered your questions with this,

regards VIDURA.

 

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Thank you for the explanations, Vidura.

And I'm gonna note this:

It might not be desirable to prevent the returning power to the supply or capacitor , as this returned power replaces the most of the inputpower.

As in many of this kind of devices the output load is an important factor for tuning, so it is not as easy to just plug in any load and it will work. But there are technical solutions to solve this problem, and "show " the device a constant load, so it maintains tuned.

This would solve the problem of permanently finding another optimal frequency everytime I change the load on ZPM's output. But that's for later when I'll need to solve this problem I'm gonna ask you then, ZPM is not at that stage yet

So ZPM would work even with a choke-coil if I put let's say one of those 10,000uF electrolytic capacitors in parallel on the wires between the choke-coil and ZPM (more specific between choke-coil and MOSFET driver) ? I can try that. When you have some time can you draw a simple schema on how this filter would look like ? No rush, just when you have some time, thanks.

And a single clarification from my side, the voltage regulator is actually put in the MOSFET driver to ensure the LED near the switch turns on every time the switch is turned on. Basically that voltage regulator makes sure that the LED is receiving 12V no matter how much voltage (between 0V and 30V) is coming from the DC source. And the LED is just a visual indicator showing that the MOSFET driver's switch is on or off, the MOSFET driver works without issues now just its LED is not on anymore when I turn the switch on.

Edit: Wait, I found it, I remembered you drawn a schema for this filter a few weeks ago, I think this is what you mean, right ?

 

A suggestion for a simple and good filter for keeping out interference from our measuring devices. The values of the components are not at all critical, but may need some adaptation for the expected frequencies. Ceramic decoupling  and tantalium caps for the smaller values perform better. The meters could be replaced by a scope as well.

Regards Vidura.

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solarlab posted this 4 weeks ago

Some more info (let me know if this is a distraction and I'll clear it off)

Links to some Power Supply Output Impedance information:

The video at the end of this link's page is pretty good.
https://www.powerelectronicsnews.com/technology/output-impedance-as-an-important-design-parameter-for-power-supplies

Also;

DC power supply output impedance characteristics
https://community.keysight.com/community/keysight-blogs/general-electronics-measurement/blog/2016/11/08/dc-power-supply-output-impedance-characteristics

How can I measure output impedance of a DC power supply?
https://community.keysight.com/community/keysight-blogs/general-electronics-measurement/blog/2016/10/12/how-can-i-measure-output-impedance-of-a-dc-power-supply

It can get quite involved very quickly, but in general, to quote the Keysight (former HP) fellow [Steven Lee]:

"The impedance of a typical DC power supply’s output stage (like the conceptual one illustrated in the above referenced posting) is usually on the order of an ohm to a couple of ohms. This is the open-loop output impedance; i.e. the output impedance before any feedback is applied around the output. If no feedback were applied we would not have anywhere near the load regulation we actually get. However, when the control amplifier provides negative feedback to correct for changes in output when a load is applied, the performance is transformed by the ratio of 1 + T, where T is loop gain of the feedback system. As an example, the output impedance of the DC power supply operating in constant voltage becomes:

Zout (closed loop) = Zout (open loop) / (1+T)

The loop gain T is approximately the gain of the operational amplifier times the attenuation of the voltage divider network. In practical feedback control systems the gain of the amplifier is quite large at and near DC, possibly as high as 90 dB of gain.

This reduces the power supply’s DC and low frequency output to just milliohms or less, providing near ideal load regulation performance.

Another factor in practical feedback control systems is the loop gain is rolled off in a controlled manner with increasing frequency in order to maintain stability. Thus at higher frequency the output impedance of a DC power supply operating as a voltage source increases towards its open loop impedance value as the loop gain decreases. ..."

Again;

IMHO - your supply likely has less to do with things than the Coil/Transformer characteristics (self, mutual inductance, inter-winding and other capacitance, core B-H Curve, bulb impedance (it's a coil), cold bulb thermal resistance/impedance change as it heats up, MOSFET operating performance (many characteristics to consider), waveform (harmonics - FFT), etc...

All in all - your experiments present some really good, thought provoking, things, in my opinion. Thanks!

SL

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

@solarlab no worries, I don't consider it a distraction at all, your posts are welcome in this thread, feel free to post anytime you want.

I'm gonna read a few times your post ( like a beginner in electronics as I am ) in order to understand and I'll check the links and videos.

So you also think there are intriguing things about this device, isn't ?

Thanks !

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patrick1 posted this 4 weeks ago

Thanks guys !

You have "Generated" a full: ‭3.574784‬ Watts above your Input for a COP: ‭1.09396

(before going to vacation) the ZPM didn't worked at all, the DC source entered in auto-protection mode, the voltage stabilizer which powers that LED in the MOSFET driver was burning and smoking and I had the impression the MOSFETS themselves didn't felt very well, they were heating up quickly so I did shutdown the experiment. The voltage stabilizer (powering that LED) is destroyed again

Hi Fighter !!.  I am with you on the aggressive defense of our planet. -  but its no good without democracy. - at least i keep telling myself that   .... so i refuse too drink the cool aid, - we must be smart, and good, and god is on our side. technology can save man.

Also i am so sorry too hear about your equipment issues, - but i think i know why, - its same problem i am having with my newman motor. - i suspect that your transistor junctions are not closing properly. -  and il cut right too it, - i purchased the identical signal generator too you from ali express. - because it is the cheapest sweep generator i could find. .. HOwever. the bloody thing has one unexpected design flaw. - the duty cycle -    i think this may be the problem,  - when it is run @ 25% etc etc. - the negative offsets, dont drop too 25% also, like my other signal generator, - the offsets go up too 75%. thus are pulling your base's down, and allowing current too backflow through the emitter. - and this can cause damage and overheating.///   i figured you know about this already, since im were working on the same stuff here. - but incase you didnt pickup on that. i also suggest building a resistor box with 40 values or so, and finding the best gate > emitter pull down resistor for a given voltage.

also, i have only made about 20 coils so far, - but i have noticed generally speaking, the frequency drops, with more resistance. - but there have been about 20% exceptions too this rule,  which is a huge margin of wtf.  - any ideas on that ?

 

Hi SOLARLAB; you are very much barking up a tree their my dear friend. - i would love too know the absolute valuves of my bench equipment, - but the truth is, its all dynamic. - my advise is too put a capacitor on the output and ignore it, or 2 if you have too..  -  although if you have any suggestions , they sound alot of fun !

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

@patrick1 sorry, I don't follow, my signal generator is doing what ? I'm not aware of any design flaw.

This is from an old post, if there would be that flaw I think it would show on the oscilloscope, it would alter the signal badly:

So I connected the yellow probe to the MOSFET: probe's ground to the source and the probe itself to the gate (link to larger image here):

This measurement's schema is the following (link to larger image here):

The MOSFET driver's switch is off so ZPM is not powered but the signal generator is on and is already sending signal to the MOSFET which is shown by the oscilloscope (link to larger image here):

Then after turning MOSFET driver's switch on the ZPM is powered on and the readings from the MOSFET are in the next image (link to larger image here):

Could you show me how you found that flaw and how can I check if my signal generator has that flaw ? In my case that voltage regulator (which is regulating voltage from 0V-30V to 12V for that LED you saw on my MOSFET driver) was blown up only when I put a choke-coil on the positive wire of my DC source's output. I suppose that the voltage coming to that voltage regulator was above its 30V limit and it couldn't handle it properly and started to emit smoke. But that's no issue, the MOSFET driver is functioning properly just right now I don't have a visual indication when its switch is on or off because that LED is not functioning anymore.

About optimal frequency in my case I found no exception from the rule, as the load increases (and so resistance on output) I always need to lower the frequency in order to find another one. For example if I have on output a 12V/55W light-bulb and I add another one 12V/55 light-bulb the new optimal frequency go down with 100 maybe 200KHz. As I continue to add more light-bulbs on output the optimal frequency go down until it goes below 100KHz where ZPM starts to draw more and more power from the DC source and it's behavior changes and becomes very inefficient. This is what I observed from my experiments. I found no exception where adding another light-bulb on the output the new optimal frequency to be higher than the old optimal frequency.

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patrick1 posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi Fighter. - thankyou, im glad that we have observed the same results. in relation too frequency and loading... i think the anomaly i registered was due too a particular experiment with 32 gauge wire. - it is so thin that a 10ohm coil, equates too about 60-70turns, and weights about 1gram, - what i am talking about is very nieche`, and critically very low power., allowing other insignificant factors too play a larger roll, -

but more importantly, regarding your signal generator, - when you are in 25%duty cycle., the transistor is on, - and when you go "off".  for 75%, it is not really off ( this is my estimation , unless you have solved it with a diode on base ).  because when you pull a NPN transistor's base too negative, - it can and will cause a reverse flow situation too occur, at a much lower voltage, than it normally would. - and in the interests of future development, you are not going too be able too replicate this factor in future designs, - so its best too elliminate it now, - and control the current flow, i would suggest adding a diode in series with the base.,- and if permissable, also a 10k~ pull down resistor from the base too emmiter..... and if you dont already, ))) . a diode from your IRFP250N, too negative rail.

i suggest do all of these, as they may improve your experiement, - but also, because it will allow you too control the current flow, and remove the possibility of "unexpected and unknown" behaviour...   creating a more solid learning foundation    . please forgive my bluntness.  but i recommend because i believe this will help and happy.

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solarlab posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey Fellows,

Not uncommon for me to be a bit lost so let me ask:

With this circuit (opposing wound series coils, pulsed on and off at a certain duty cycle, and a light bulb in parallel with the series coils) what is the primary objective; or what, briefly, do you anticipate will be the result?

And, why do you think this result might come about?  What might actually cause this result?

Just curious as always, thanks in advance!

SL

 

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Atti posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi SL and everyone.

 

or what, briefly, do you anticipate will be the result?

And, why do you think this result might come about? What might actually cause this result?

That's a good question! I agree with the approach.
Expand: How can we use it with other larger machines?
Of course, only if the higher performance is fully proven and there is no measurement error.

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

@Atti

Of course, only if the higher performance is fully proven and there is no measurement error.

I'm sorry ? That sounds like a demand. Without time invested and research no device gonna be "fully proven" by itself. Excuse me for being so blunt this time but what about joining the research and doing experiments with ZPM, not just passively waiting for someone to do all the research and even demanding things ? You have all the information you need here. What about this approach ?...

About the measurement error, I think we passed that stage, there are oscilloscope results with screenshots and all the details. Thank you.

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

@patrick1 I think I understand what you mean. So you're saying that flaw is actually used by ZPM to send power back to the DC source ? It's a possibility because for sure I detected power coming back to the DC source but didn't understood what's the mechanism used by ZPM to send power through MOSFET driver.

If that flaw is real that means at some point I need to "blind" the ZPM and make it stop "seeing" the DC source as load and use that power to do real work like powering up additional load on output.

But the project is not at that stage yet and can't do this right now, let me explain why: from my experiments seems that large capacitor from inside the DC source is actually playing a certain role and is being a part of ZPM actually. ZPM is actually using it as its own component and may be one of the reasons why the experiment when I tried to replace the DC source with batteries failed.

I agree that at some point I'll need to replace the DC source with batteries but for the reason I explained before I'm not at that stage yet. But I'll keep in mind the possibility of that flaw.

Thanks.

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

@Atti My measurements are made through oscilloscope now and I posted them so where the measurement errors would be ? So your opinion about "measurement errors" is based on what exactly ?

I also have years of investments in time, work and money BUT I'm sharing my data here making it possible to others to replicate my results, do their own research and share what they find here.  So far didn't saw anyone joining and more than that, even if I provide details with oscilloscope screenshots and all the stuff, I still see doubts. I agree digital voltmeters and ampere-meters could have measurement errors (like you show in your video) with this kind of devices but how an oscilloscope have measurement errors ?

If you still have doubts there is a way: replicate ZPM, make your own research and measurements (using oscilloscope) and (if you find them) show me where the measurement errors would be. I would be curious to see how it works on your side, I provided all the required details for replication here, nothing is missing. Come here and say "hey, I replicated ZPM, made measurements but the results are not like your results. here is my research and data". Then you would have real arguments and data to justify your doubts. Without that anyone can have "doubts" about anything and talk in general about "measurement errors" regarding any kind of device.

I will stop my replies here with a single conclusion: Prove to me that I'm wrong. Show me your test results. Thank you.

Edit: I see in your video you're already working with a ZPM replication (just the coils are on top of the Metglas core, not on lateral sides) and even powering a 220V light-bulb. And you still have "doubts" and talk about "measurement errors" ? I don't see any measurement data on your oscilloscope, did you measured with oscilloscope and still found measurement errors ? Why not sharing your ZPM replication project and your progress ?

Interesting, talking about sharing...

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Vidura posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey Friends, You are doing great work all, thank you for sharing your experience, please take in account that sometimes the Google translation are not at all accurate, specially in certain languages. In the English text I couldn't find any offence or demand in the posts. Regarding the measurements, I personally have had some experience with results slightly above cop1 , which have proofed wrong after alternative testing. It is not an easy task with such an unconventional device, and with high frequency currents. We should be a bit carefully to take the accuracy of any measurement techniques as granted, at least when the difference between in and output is not to very much. I have managed that my Amcc cores will be resent to Argentina, so hopefully soon I will be able to join with some experiments with the setup. Regards Vidura

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi Vidura.

It's not like that, as you can see in the previous screenshots not everyone is sharing, see the ZPM replication powering a 220V light-bulb ? But he still have "doubts" and talk about "measurement errors" ? Right...

Some just take and don't give anything back. And we wonder why we are in this mess on our planet.

He didn't came with any data to support his doubts, didn't saw any oscilloscope screenshots with measurements or anything else showing different results. What can I say, I also can go to anywhere in the forum and start talking about "measurement errors" and talking about doubts.

Sorry about this, I'll just stop my replies to him here and move on because I think I owe an answer to @solarlab

P.S.: I'm glad you could "recover" your Metglas cores and also I'd be happy if you can join the ZPM research, if you need any clarifications about the experiments I presented here I would gladly provide them, feel free to ask

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

@solarlab no worries about being a bit lost, we're working with kind of exotic devices here...

From my point of view ZPM passed the first stage that I call "overunity stage" even if the COP is just 1.1, not as big as I estimated initially based on DC source's readings.

At the end of this stage I think it's appropriate to make a summary and this summary I think would be an answer to your questions.

First, just some background information.

The basic experiment which can provide some information about the phenomenon involved in ZPM is The MrPreva Experiment.

The more advanced effect also involved in ZPM is what Chris presented here so many times, the "bucking coils" or Partnered Output Coils.

The idea is that in certain conditions the bucking coils are able to provide extra-power making possible over-unity. Let's think for a moment about ZPM. Out current physics say this device shouldn't behave like it does. Two asymmetric coils producing opposing magnetic fields which partially annihilate each-other, isn't ? When a pulse is coming on input the smaller coil annihilate half of the magnetic field of the bigger coil (turns ratio is 1:2), isn't ? What's remaining is just half of the magnetic field produced by the bigger coil. Nothing else. According to current physics all what this device should do is to take all the power from the DC source and consume it without any use and the result should be just a small pulsing magnetic field which I doubt would be able to power 2 x 12V/55W light-bulbs like it actually does.

What we actually found is kind of not matching what our current physics says.

While ZPM is able to power (not fully but the light is still very strong) 2 x 12V/55W light-bulbs:

And the test below is with 2 x 12V/35W halogen light bulbs, as a temporary solution to avoid burning the table I put them on a testboard so they don't stay on the table but for now I can't test with them more than 2-3 minutes because for sure the plastic from the testboard will start to melt; the last image shows the luminozity of these two halogen lights when the lights in the room are turned off (link to larger image here):

in the same time it "sees" the DC source as another load and is sending power back to it which (in my opinion) may be another explanation of DC source's "confusion" and its readings since a DC source is manufactured just to provide power not to receive power back:

My Friends,

In the below image, we see two numbers with a red line above them:

 

Both numbers are very different! Average or Mean: 172mV and Vrms or Voltage Root Mean Square: 610mV.

Importantly, we have a DC Power Supply! Direct Current meaning one way only! At lease if one is running a Linear Load like a Light Globe!

All Current below the faint turquoise line I have drawn in here:

 

is Negative Current, its below the Zero Graticule Line of the Probe measuring it.

The Root Mean Square is 610mV across a 0.25 Ohm Resistor, this is approximately: 59.512 Watts input to the ZPM.

At the same time the Scope is saying we have 172mV across a 0.25 Ohm Resistor, this is approximately: 17.082 Watts input the ZPM.

Both figures cant be right! So in this case which one do we trust?

We know Power is coming back at us, the ZPM sees the Source as a Load! The ZPM is trying to Power its load, being the Power Supply.

So what do we have? What are the facts?

  1. 172mV across a 0.25 Ohm Resistor, 0.688 Amps, approximately: 17.082 Watts input the ZPM.
  2. 610mV across a 0.25 Ohm Resistor, 2.44 Amps, approximately: 59.512 Watts input to the ZPM.

This is because your DUT is Non-Linear, and your Source is DC, the DUT sending Power back to Power the DC Source!

What else did we found ?

Well, seems the wave we read on ZPM's output is very similar to what we see on Graham Gunderson's device output (thank you Cd_Sharp for noticing it) which may indicate that his device was using (partially or entirely) a similar concept:

And here it's something which Cd_Sharp noticed, when using the 12W/55W light-bulb the waveform is looking very similar to Graham Gunderson's device waveform (link to larger image here):

Another thing we found is that on ZPM's output seems to be present some kind of high-frequency standing wave which have some strange effect - there is a 36Vpp voltage difference in the same output wire measured at the point where it's connected to ZPM coil and at another point where (the same wire) is connected to the light-bulb's pin:

Also you remember that before going to vacation I posted here a photo about a anomaly where the device seems to power preferentially the light-bulbs put on its output ? Like in this image where a 12V/5W light-bulb placed directly on device's coils is illuminating stronger than another 12V/5W light-bulb connected after a 12V/55W light-bulb ? This photo (link to larger image here):

I wanted to see what's going on on the output so I connected one channel from the oscilloscope directly on device's coils and another channel on light-bulb's pins as following (link to larger image here):

Blue channel is connected directly on ZPM's coils while the yellow channel is connected on the light-bulb's pins.

So I didn't measured the current but I measured the voltage only. As you can see (marked with red rectangle on the image of the oscilloscope's screen) on the same wire there is a Vpp difference of 36 volts between its beginning and its end. I didn't knew it's possible to have voltage difference in the same wire when its length is just 30-40 centimeters.

The only explanation I can find about this anomaly is related to those mysterious standing waves as Vidura noticed:

Hey Fighter and all, The effect that the light bulbs on different connected points (or different wire length) have unequal luminosity is a sign for standing waves at high frequencies. Comparable with Tesla's experience when he shorted a transmission line at one point with a thick copper bar and had at another point of the line light bulbs lit.

Well, maybe I missed something from this (summarized as short as possible) ZPM presentation but I think it provides a general idea of what we're dealing with.

I don't know about you but while experimenting with ZPM I found these anomalies and its behavior strange enough to pursue studying it.

Now the fact that is (even slightly) over-unity (COP 1.1) in my opinion demonstrate that it's worth working on improving it further:

Hey Fighter,

You have my Vote!

Purely Resistive Load, no phase angle to worry about! Figures look good!

 

Input:

 

Output:

 

Well done! Good work Fighter!

You have "Generated" a full: ‭3.574784‬ Watts above your Input for a COP: ‭1.09396

Sorry, I exceeded the 10000 characters limit for a post, I'll create a new post and continue there...

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

About the physics involved here it's not my specialty (I'm a software developer) but as it contradicts some of the rules of our current standard physics I think the explanations are actually related to quantum physics which also contradicts our standard physics (see particle entanglement phenomenon). I'm just guessing here but I think opposing magnetic fields at high-frequency create "holes" in the zero-point / quantum/ aether field, however we choose to call it, a field which is present anywhere in the universe. And just like when we create a hole in the water, that field is equilibrating those "holes" and that movement create extra-energy which is collected by all the over-unity devices. Of course, opposing magnetic fields is just a way to accomplish that, there are other kind of devices doing this in other ways but even there magnetic fields are involved, they're using electromagnets or permanent magnets. But as I said physics is not my field of expertise and I don't intend to pursue the direction of explaining theoretically what's happening in these devices, that's physicists work when they will decide to wake up and get their heads out of sand. My project and my goal are for building a device having COP higher than 3 so it can power itself and in the same time power a let's say 100W load.

Now what about the next stage, where it will go from here ?

I call this new stage "enhancements stage". Measuring COP should become more precise and should be done in real-time so I can work on fine-tuning. Measuring let's say the output using light-bulbs luminosity is not a option anymore like it was in the previous stage

Right now I'm working on a filter which hopefully would be a solution for my "confused" DC source and its readings. The assumption is DC source's readings are messed up because of high-frequency noise coming back to it from the MOSFET driver and /or ZPM. If that's the case maybe this filter suggested by Vidura will solve the problem:

A suggestion for a simple and good filter for keeping out interference from our measuring devices. The values of the components are not at all critical, but may need some adaptation for the expected frequencies. Ceramic decoupling  and tantalium caps for the smaller values perform better. The meters could be replaced by a scope as well.

Regards Vidura.

But if (as I suspect) the DC source's "confusion" is created by the fact that ZPM is sending power back there would be another approach: I need to figure out if ZPM is really using that big capacitor from the DC source as its own component and find a way to stop it doing that because I want that power to be put to use on the real output therefore this would increase the COP. Would be nice if by doing that I would get COP closer to 2. Also by doing that I would prepare a later stage where ZPM should be separated from the DC source and made to work on batteries. But doing this will require a lot of time and experiments.

Another step is to make a real-time reliable power measurement system for both input and output using current-sensing resistors and connected on that system two channels of the oscilloscope, maybe additionally some digital and also analog measurement instruments. That would require a lot of work to build and especially to calibrate to make sure the readings are correct all the time.

Having this real-time measurement system would allow me to fine-tune ZPM while having real-time COP shown because right now I'm finding the optimal frequency by increasing-decreasing it by 1KHz steps but for fine-tuning I should go to 1Hz steps. This hopefully would allow to have some significant increase of the COP but I estimate it will take a lot of time to ensure the system's readings are reliable in any conditions and considering I don't have too much free time it will take a while.

Another step would be to explore other coils configurations. That could significantly increase the COP as I'm sure I didn't matched from the beginning the optimal coils configuration of this device, I just used 1:2 ratio but there could be other ratios which could have great impact on COP as you can see from these posts:

Hello everyone.

I think I know how it is possible to extract energy from the vacuum.
It turns out that the magnetic permeability behavior
It has a region in which it is negative!
As if it were a tunnel diode, it also has it.
Only in this, we draw the current from the source and its
behavior as an amplifier is real.
Because the negative region in ferromagnetic materials
It is expressed by permeability, it interacts with the vacuum.
Here the graph of their behavior.


This image is just a sample of how permeability changes
depending on the current through the inductor that makes up the system,
It is merely illustrative.
That is why there are two operating points, one is static and depends on the
load, and other dynamic and depends on the frequency.
I continue with the experiments that prove that the OU is possible, it is still a
Hypothesis not a theory.
It would not violate any thermodynamic law because it extracts the energy of an entity
We still don't understand.

@Fighter.
I still do tests to understand your experiment, but everything has to do
with magnetic permeability and standing waves.
The turns ratios must be quadratic because the inductance is.
This means that the turns ratios will be the root of 0.75, 0.5 or 0.25 of lambda for
one of your inductors N2 = SQR (n) N1, where n is one of the previous numbers.

Thank you all in advance.
YoElMiCrO.

@YoElMiCrO: In my current setup "L" coil has approx. 150 turns and "R" coil approx. 300 turns.

N2 = 150 turns, N1 = 300 turns.

So N2 = 0.5 * N1 = SQR(0.25) * N1, it matches the case where n = 0.25.

Other configurations would be:

1. N2 = SQR(0.5) * N1 = 0.70 * 300 = 210 turns for coil L where n = 0.5; Lturns / Rturns = 210/300;

2. N2 = SQR(0.75) * N1 = 0.86 * 300 = 258 turns for coil L where n = 0.75; Lturns / Rturns = 258/300.

Of course N1 can be increased or decreased too, I just calculated for N1 = 300 turns where I want to keep "R" coil as it is now and just modify "L1" coil.

Interesting, very interesting... If your hypothesis is confirmed we may have a formula to design any configuration for this device. I wonder which case is better in terms of efficiency.

So this would be a draft of this new "enhancements stage". At least how I see it right now, I'm sure as I progress other steps could be added or some steps could be removed, it's not something which could be planned precise from the beginning, it's research and experiments and could lead anywhere. Sorry it was a long post, it took me 2 hours but I hope it answered your questions and with this occasion I've made a summary of the current status of the ZPM and I drafted a plan to what I intend to do in the near future. Depending on the free time I will have it may take a while to do this.

solarlab posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi Fighter,

EXCELLENT dissertation, thank you very much for taking the time to clearly explain!

Will have to review it some more in detail, especially the Standing Wave hypothesis.

Gorchilin's site has a bit on fractional wavelength standing waves that he has observed - which somehow, in the back of my mind, seems to correlate ??? Interesting... Page is hard to find so it's linked below:

Slow Magnetic Waves (4 pages) - Gorchilin [ http://gorchilin.com/articles/coil/magnetic_wave?lang=en ]

Quite interesting indeed!

SL

 

Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Thank you sir I hope this review is offering some clarifications but keep in mind I couldn't include all the details in it, the other details can be found in the previous posts from this thread.

Atti posted this 4 weeks ago

 

Fighter !

I think you are mad at me.


-I'm sorry, but this is a hypersilicon iron core. Not Metglas!
-I think iron of the same size and material would be important for accurate replication. Perhaps I have the opportunity.Also, if the exact size were available, it would be associated with the exact thread speed. But that doesn't mean anything, because I can ruin anything! The real conclusion is that as many people as possible would have to do the same experiments.
- My coil layout is not perfect. In the next I will try.
- The bulb is 24V 40W, but this is irrelevant in this case!
-If I'm done with your assignment, I'll come here and tell you the measurement should be any result!
-I think those who share their opinions here with others are happy to do so. They don't demand anything, they don't ask for anything.


I think sometimes I do better if I stay silent.

Chris posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey Guys,

Like Fighter said:

The more advanced effect also involved in ZPM is what Chris presented here so many times, the "bucking coils" or Partnered Output Coils.

 

I think it is really a case of "Think Simple" on this as complicating it in any way will make for unnecessary confusion!

Think: Accelerate Charge, the rest will follow.

@Atti: If I may recommend, perhaps a replication, another side by side supporting thread, of Fighters work? Prove to yourself simple things work best!

   Chris

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Gorchilin's site has a bit on fractional wavelength standing waves that he has observed - which somehow, in the back of my mind, seems to correlate ??? Interesting... Page is hard to find so it's linked below:

Slow Magnetic Waves (4 pages) - Gorchilin [ http://gorchilin.com/articles/coil/magnetic_wave?lang=en ]

Quite interesting indeed!

This is actually very interesting !

I will need to find some free time so I can read it carefully and understand the details presented there but even taking a quick look now I find some things quite intriguing there !

Thank you @solarlab, I was not aware of that site and especially of that information presented there !

Edit: searching for that information I actually found the same information in our forum here:

http://www.aboveunity.com/thread/vyacheslav-gorchilin-chris-sikes-2-nd-order-magnetic-field-resonance/

Seems I missed that thread too, I should be more carefully...

Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

I just found a detector of standing waves on that site. How cool is that ?

I'm putting the link here for later references, I will need this at some point:

http://gorchilin.com/articles/coil/indicator?lang=en

Also a visual simulator of standing waves:

http://gorchilin.com/calculator/longline?lang=en

Vidura posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey Fighter yes the links for gorchillins site have been posted by aloha some time ago, there's actually interesting information. I have made some of this magnetic wave detectors the first time in a older video with a opposing coils configuration on a ferrite bar and the scope connected instead of the LEDs, then I made others with LEDs on a small inductor. A good and simple tool to visualize standing wave effects.

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patrick1 posted this 3 weeks ago

 

But if (as I suspect) the DC source's "confusion" is created by the fact that ZPM is sending power back there would be another approach: I need to figure out if ZPM is really using that big capacitor from the DC source as its own component and find a way to stop it doing that because I want that power to be put to use on the real output therefore this would increase the COP. Would be nice if by doing that I would get COP closer to 2.

Hey Fighter. - I am Glad you decided not too make any changes too your circuit yet, -   because its better that you decide when too try any of my observations, rather than i wait,  and decide when i mention it...

Also, my estimation of the above issue is that, - you and your meter is correct.  - the linear behavior is hard too argue with, it looks very convincing and well above COP 3. - i thought it was likely well above 10, even 20+...  and mabee not much room for improvement at that voltage.  . interesting it failed with batteries. - is your troublemaker capacitor ;=D LOW ESR or Electrolyic, or BiPolar normal, or "can" style ?.   thankyou.

Atti. i would love too see your experiments also, - it seems it can be done very cheaply. - certainly an $900 core is out of my price range - i am going too try and work with ferrites, and chinese cores. - and hopefully iron, - i have several iron transformers from old medical equipment in the 30-40 kg range ;=). ,

also mate, - dont stop talking, you mean well, that is plain too see. ....  just like when a person responds in panick too a forum post ( at the thought of offending a person accidentally ), - i sure have done it too.  peace and love !

Patrick1

Atti posted this 3 weeks ago

Hey Patrick!
I don't think an effect only works with super substances. That's why I chose hyperersil iron. It's at home.
However, the current setting is not correct (the coils are not on the edges) and should be redone.
Be calm when you have a new setting I'll make a video about it.
The currents measured at the current setting are incorrect. Only the light current measured on the coil is not very high on the coil. Only a few.
Therefore, the coils give almost no reaction to the circuit. Where there is current there must also be a magnetic field, where there is a change in magnetic field there is a voltage. Probably too many coil turns for such a high frequency.Or, the power supply should be raised.
For example, this measurement of coil and bulb current is not seen in Fighter's assembly.
I think it is likely that magnetic resonance is here.
But irrelevant, I just wondered.

Years ago I did an experiment with a similar setup. But the point is in it.Two opposing magnetic fields.However, the data of the coils are the same there.


This setting caused a knocking noise on a small radio. Even with magnetic shielding.
 Like J.L. Naudin in the TEP circuit. I think YoEIMiCrO may have noticed this. But he'll let us know.

I'll probably expand the measurement.
But now I have little time to deal with it.

patrick1 posted this 3 weeks ago

Hi Atti, ,,  thankyou,, i read your posted very good times

it helped me,  

i realize , if you forgive the expression, that i am pissing into the wind.   ... too many variables.

for those ppl who have worked with flyback cores, - what kind of frequency would one expect work in ?... they seem too go too sleep after about 5khz,  - yet most applications they are @ 20khz ...

YoElMiCrO posted this 3 weeks ago

Hello everyone.

@Fighter.
With this circuit I designed is that I am testing my replica of your ZPM and
now for WET with a small modification.
It is based on PLL, to facilitate frequency adjustment.
The frequency range is between approximately 25 to 150KHz
for the published circuit, but changing the PLL capacitor found
between pins 6/7 you can modify this frequency, it also has a resistor in the
pin 12 which modified sets the minimum working frequency.
The maximum possible frequency will be 1.4MHz.
I think it can help you, here the circuit drawn by hand again, sorry.

Here an image of the PCB terminated with said circuit.

Thank you all in advance.
YoElMiCrO.

Fighter posted this 3 weeks ago

Hi guys, sorry for not answering, I have a lot of things to do at work, I'll answer in weekend.

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Atti posted this 3 weeks ago

Hi.

The following came to my mind when looking at Fighter's layout.
Voltage returned from PWM powered d.c motor via idle diode.

difference is that there is no opposing magnetic field. (and what if?)

 

I wanted to do a full measurement against my options.
Obviously not the best!

In this configuration, the transformer can withstand 2Tesla max induction of iron.
The coils are on both sides of the iron.
The inductance ratios of the coils can be varied.
Drawing in the video. The magnetic directions are opposite.

It also shows what happens when only one coil is wired.

In this measurement, I was curious about the ratio of inputs to outputs.
Unfortunately, the needle impulse disorders made the whole thing inaccurate.

So I thought I'd skip the resistance current measurement.

An approximate measurement would probably be the DC voltage.
The question is how to put the bulb on DC so that it does not change our circuit.
One-way diodes and capacitors are not suitable.
Diode rectifier performs peak rectification.
It doesn't charge the entire output signal. It just pinches its top, but it does! The rectifier should be one that loads both the positive and negative periods of the current.

Both half-periods are known as doubling the known and shown voltage in the video.
Right now, I thought this was appropriate.
If the two-sided voltage is not the same, it will automatically shift with the rectifier zero.
But as you can see it is not perfect, because the shape of the voltage is almost triangular.
It would have been better if I had put the voltage first in an inductive storage and then the rectification from there.

The measurement results are for information only!
But it demonstrates the whole meaning of it.

Special thanks to Vidra for the idea!

I thought the 4 4700y capacitors connected in parallel to the power supply would handle the interference. But no!

A filter must be placed on the power supply. The difference is clearly visible in the video. The voltage of the FET disturbance is also well discernible.
So proper propulsion must be provided.
That is why measurements should be handled and kept in mind.

Significant energy can flow backwards in the downstream direction at some settings.
This can be measured by simpler (even oscilloscope) power meters as input power. (also due to embarrassment)
The drive is pulsed (10-50%).
Measuring every opportunity.
Then I tried it with the H-bridge.
There has been a lot of change here, but we need to take proper breaks.
The result is the same.

 

Obviously I did not fully act!
He was running like this at the moment.
I'd be happy for someone else to do some measurement over their capabilities.


Please join me, don't just read the results because I might be lying!

patrick1 posted this 3 weeks ago

woohoo.  usps says my cores are in the country.

in the mean time, i have been having a good struggle with ferrites....  3 steps forwards, 3 steps back...  dan they are hard nuts too crack....  im at risk of feeling stubborn, but i want the stability of using a core, instead of air....    but for consistancy i may be better working with air.....    much too learn as always.  - at least we have enormous magnets too garnish free energy from untill we catch up

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Fighter posted this 2 weeks ago

Hi guys, sorry for being silent lately, I just have an unexpected spike of things to do at work and for now I have almost no time to work on the project, I'm waiting for weekend, hopefully I'll have some time to resume the tests.

Fighter posted this 2 weeks ago

Hi, that's made by Hitachi Metals, it should have 100% the same characteristics as mine.

Never managed to find out what that label A-17 (on your core) or E-15 (on my core) means but I don't think they are related to characteristics.

Did you checked to make sure the coils magnetic fields are opposing ?

Also did you searched for the optimum frequency (sweep) for your load like I do here ?

At the optimum frequency with your scope put in parallel on output you should see on your scope a waveform like this (link to larger image here):

What are you conclusions about COP ?

Vidura posted this 2 weeks ago

@Atti,Good that you joined the experiment, interesting information, do you drive the MOSFET directly with the Signal generator? It looks more like an analogue oscillator. The current shunts with non inductive shape is a good idea. I have a bit difficulty to follow exactly the circuit design, a drawing of the complete setup and measurement points would be great . Thanks for sharing your work. Vidura.

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cd_sharp posted this 2 weeks ago

Hey, Atti, nice work.

Careful, Metglas is electrically conductive and the edges are very sharp, they would easily destroy any enamel isolation on the copper wire. I quit using Metglas without good spools, I've had some arcs between the coil and the core and the core heated.

Hope this helps.

patrick1 posted this 2 weeks ago

Atti  exciting stuff. well done. looks promising.    im itching for my duplicate cores too arive still

in the mean time, i have been playing with my new ferrites instead, and the non-inductive coil ...  at least that works great.  my machine is ringing beautifully. ...  on the bucking output coils.  - however i think this system without metglas may be more suited too delayed conduction....  i am afraid my system may be abit non conventional at this stage,  its 4am now, but tomorrow i am going too try getting some output through back too back diodes

which i think its a cool idea ?.  i have some 12v zeners, going back too back with a 1000v diode. - so i am allowing the resonance, and just using the sine wave above 12v. i think ?. so not dampening the oscillations too much hopefully...      but im afraid that doing this way is not proper for bucking coils, just normal resonance.

Atti posted this 2 weeks ago

Hello everyone.
@Fighter


- The core size is different. It is smaller. If it were exactly the same, then an accurate comparison could be made. Optimal inductance should also be found.
-I have tried both magnetic directions but the directions shown are opposite. You can see this from the measured inductance.


  • I've tried every frequency at every frequency. But the pwm generator needs to be converted.
    -COP measurement. At the end of the video, you can see the number of spikes on the resistance wire (0.1 ohm) used to measure current. With and without load. This makes accurate measurement impossible. For the time being.

  • @Vidurra
    -I don't usually withhold information. Since I was given the opportunity to do the experiment, I think it's fair to show all the data to someone else. It doesn't matter what the results are. You can learn a lot from a bad result.
    The fet (IRF 540) is powered by a 555 timer.
    -I have currently considered this the best for measuring current, but it is not shorter. That's why it is folded for inductance.

  • @cd_sharp
    Thanks for the idea.

  • @ Patrick1
    In my opinion, the diode or the zener diode alone is of little use. Exercise can come in handy.

I'll keep going

Fighter posted this 2 weeks ago

- The core size is different. It is smaller. If it were exactly the same, then an accurate comparison could be made. Optimal inductance should also be found.
- I have tried both magnetic directions but the directions shown are opposite. You can see this from the measured inductance.

Yes, the core size is different, I know. I meant the magnetic properties and the hysteresis of your core should be the same. Including the same ratio between iron, nickel, molybden, boron and cobalt in the alloy composition of the core. The production process of Hitachi is well controlled and very precise. You use the same turns ratio (150/300) as in my ZPM so your core should behave the same way as mine, the difference of size doesn't really matter. About magnetic fields, yes, from your inductance measurements it seems the fields are opposing indeed. When I built my ZPM I double-checked by powering each coil and checking its upper side is producing North magnetic polarity and it's lower side is producing South magnetic polarity like this:


  • I've tried every frequency at every frequency. But the pwm generator needs to be converted.

I agree, finding manually the optimum frequency in a range of 0KHz - 1MHz is impractical. The process should be driven by a signal generator having frequency sweep feature.

- COP measurement. At the end of the video, you can see the number of spikes on the resistance wire (0.1 ohm) used to measure current. With and without load. This makes accurate measurement impossible. For the time being.

I'll keep going

About COP calculation you could use Vrms and Vavg shown on your oscilloscope as we did in previous posts for my ZPM. I agree - experimenting with ZPM and adapting equipment to its behaviour requires some time...

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Fighter posted this 2 weeks ago

Hi guys,

Chris asked me to consider adding a Paypal donation button at the top of this thread.

So you can find it at the beginning of the ZPM thread here:

http://www.aboveunity.com/thread/romanian-zpm-zero-point-module/

or in this post here:

If you find ZPM intriguing and the experiments and data I share here with you useful for your own projects and research, you may help the further research by donating:

 

 

Your support will be very much appreciated and it will be used ONLY for equipment and building customized electronics for further research and experiments.

If you're working with a ZPM replication please share your findings here like I do so we can enhance this device.

Thank you,
Fighter

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Atti posted this 2 weeks ago

Hey Vidurra. There's the drawing.

cd_sharp posted this 2 weeks ago

Hey everyone,

I've just experienced some problems at 20Khz with these current sensing resistors:

In this picture I should see a 0.000A linear on the light blue trace

which is the voltage over a resistor while no current flows through it. The problem grows with the frequency. So, any ringing in previous measurements should be ignored, they are not there for real. I could verify these shunts do a very good job below 1KHz.

I'm planning to move on to another model.

Chris posted this 2 weeks ago

Hey CD,

What is the circuit to test the Current Resistors?

With any high frequency circuit, the general rules are keep the leads short as possible, try to make a general effort to minimise Inductance throughout.

Lets have a good look and see what we can find on these Resistors, we did look before and they did come up ok: Here

   Chris

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Fighter posted this 2 weeks ago

@Cd_Sharp: I don't think there is something wrong with the resistors. The ringing is present on DC source's output even without the resistors present in the circuit, they just send to the scope's probe what they "see" in the circuit. In many of the previous posts I presented what the scope shows when one of its probes is put in parallel on DC source's output. Your device has a Metglas core identical with mine and it's using bucking coils just like ZPM. In my opinion (based on previous scope images I posted here of DC source's output without resistors present in the circuit) the ringings are real, they mean that your device is sending power back to the DC source just like it happens with ZPM.

In the shipment I received recently from China I have 3 x 10A/75mV current-sensing shunts, two of them will be the base of a real-time COP measurement system, they will be placed on input and output. And one of them I don't intend to use it in this system, I ordered one additionally just in case I need to make other measurement except input and output. They're part of the same lot and should be identical in their characteristics so I'll have a common criteria of measurement on input and output. If you want I can give to you the spare shunt as long as you need it so you can give it a try and experiment with it. Just let me know and we can meet. With this occasion I will return the shunt I borrowed from you, I kind of kept it for a long time, sorry about this...

Below is a photo of one of the shunts and also a photo with two of the shunts on input and output (link to larger image here):

Fighter posted this 2 weeks ago

And as an update, seems today was not a good day for science...

I started some tests and forgot to limit the testing time to 4-5 minutes as usually, analyzing the scope I forgot about the limit and the MOSFET and its radiator in the MOSFET driver got excessively hot. So the last IRFP250N I had in the driver is gone:

As no electronics store was open today (Sunday) and I didn't had another spare MOSFET I couldn't do anything about this.

So I decided it's time to start working on upgrading the MOSFET driver's cooling system, to make it active using the two coolers I bought some months ago but I always postponed to make this upgrade.

This upgrade is work in progress, this is how it will look like (link to larger image here):

They will be powered separately (to avoid any interference with the circuit, I don't want ZPM to try also to send power back to the coolers too) using a small 12V/1.2A transformer and then I'll convert to DC using a GBU406 bridge-rectifier.

Something like this (link to larger image here):

Probably I'll add also a electrolytic capacitor even if coolers seems to work fine without it...

So until I find some time to go buy some IRFP250N MOSFETs, install them in the driver and finish this upgrade I'm not able to continue the experiments, I'll try to do all these if I find some free time during this week.

But even if i wasn't able to do experiments today there is a good thing about what happened, with this upgrade to active cooling system, if it will be efficient enough, hopefully I'll be able to do experiments without needing to stop every 4-5 minutes to let the MOSFET driver to cool down before running another experiment.

Vidura posted this 2 weeks ago

Hey Fighter, Sorry about that lost MOSFET. As you can see on some of the scope shots you have voltage spikes reaching nearly the maximum rated voltage of the irfz250, which is 200v. It can possibly avalanche and overheating due to this condition. Although that it is possible that the behaviour of the ZPM could change , I would give it a try with a higher voltage rated MOSFET. Possibly the heating issue can be avoided, and a more reliable operation achieved. Regards Vidura.

Fighter posted this 2 weeks ago

Hi Vidura, about MOSFET it's not a problem, it happens... I was also thinking to change the MOSFETs but I had the same concern - different switching times, ZPM behavior change etc. I intended to a buy few more IRFP250Ns and to look for others with higher rated voltage to give them a try. Unfortunately the store I'm buying from don't have IRFP250N anymore, the closest I found there are some IRFP250PBF, not sure if they will work the same like IRFP250N (regarding switching times and ZPM behavior), but I'll buy them and I will see.

Also I will look if the store has others with higher rated voltage. Anyway, with IRFP250PBFs or others, as long as I'm not gonna use exactly the same MOSFETs (IRFP250N), I'm prepared for some changes in ZPM's behavior.

Also I need to make a correction here related to the active cooling, now I realized that 12V transformer is actually converting to DC so that bridge-rectifier is useless, it's very late here (5 a.m.) and seems that I'm really tired... smile

cd_sharp posted this 2 weeks ago

Hey, guys

What is the circuit to test the Current Resistors?

Note: the DC PS is on 0V, no current output.

3 x 10A/75mV current-sensing shunts

That means 1 amp will give you a reading of 7.5mV and 0.1A will read as 0.75 mV, while the scope you have cannot read less than 5mV. You will read the output current more precisely, but you won't be able to read the input current.

I suggest you keep the current sensing resistors, they are good, but they ring at high frequencies. The scope shots you showed are good, you just have to ignore the ringing. That makes it fit in with the asymmetrical regauging even better.

Chris posted this 2 weeks ago

Hey CD,

Yes, Fighter is right, this circuit is full of what they call parasitic Inductance. This will give you the spikes you are seeing.

For a test on the resistors, you can use a circuit like this:

 

Keep all leads short, and you should get a nice Linear DC Current reading.

@Fighter, CD is right, although the Current shunts are very nice, they will be hard to measure small currents: I = V / R

At the rated 10 amps and the rated 75mv, we get a resistance of: 0.0075 Ohms. That's a power of 75Watts. You can calculate the numbers here: Ohms Law Calculator.

   Chris

cd_sharp posted this 2 weeks ago

Guys, a correction, Rigol DS1054Z is able to read down until 1mV.

Fighter posted this 1 weeks ago

Hi Atti,

Thank you for joining the research on ZPM and sharing the experiments.

Right now I'm at work but I saw one time your video, I'll watch it more times when I find some free time.

Yes, that's the ZPM's specific waveform, of course it will vary depending on the load but that's the pattern.

About the frequency, when you hear that high-pitch sound from the core it means the frequency is too low, that should not be audible, at low frequency the device is losing its normal behavior, in my case I always try to keep it over 120-150 KHz.

About measurement, the only way to get some accurate measurements is with current-sensing resistors or shunts and with oscilloscope. Don't count too much on that analog ampere-meter, even if you put choke-coils on your source's output the device is still sending power back to the source and that power has high-frequency pulses, the analog ampere-meter is made for DC, it will never be able to give any indication about the current going to the ZPM and receved back from the ZPM, most probably what it's indicating is just the amplitude of the spikes it "sees" in the circuit, not the real consumption.

As I said the only practical way is just the one with current-sensing devices and oscilloscope.

There could be another possible way, to try to convert ZPM's output to DC, I tried it at the beginning but it destroyed a big electrolytic capacitor from one of the channels of my Schotky bridge-rectifier. Another possible problem with this approach could be that introducing a bridge-rectifier on ZPM's output most probably will alter the way the device's coils interact with each other, but this is just a assumption for now as I didn't tried this I'm just thinking about it.

Unfortunately for now my MOSFET driver is out of service, I need to find some free time to put new MOSFETs on it and also to finish the upgrade to a active cooling system; so for the moment I can't run experiments but I'll continue when I'll finish the changes of the MOSFET driver.

About the power of the two light-bulbs, as I said ZPM seems to have some kind of "preferences" about how it powers its loads... I don't know how those "preferences" can be influenced but frequency seems to be one of those criteria.

Trying with a grounding connection is a interesting way, I was thinking for a while about it but didn't had time to do experiments on that way, what I see in your experiment seems very interesting.

Thanks again for joining the ZPM research, please feel free to share your experiments with your ZPM here; or if you want you may create a separate ZPM replication thread, depends on how you prefer.

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Fighter posted this 1 weeks ago

Today I became a happy owner of a Modular Switching Tool for Research designed and made by Vidura !

I ordered the full kit, I must say this is a piece of art, I really like it !

It's flexible, you can select and connect the modules in different configurations depending on the device you're experimenting with, it has its own signal generator and its own power delivery module for PowerSwitches, the toolkit must be powered by a separate power supply but in this way its own power is separated completely from the device you're experimenting with.

Also the PowerSwitch modules have mechanical systems for easily changing their MOSFETs or varistors, during the experiments these are the components which can be damaged.

I must say this is a must-have tool for experimenting with any device and it incorporates a lot of knowledge and a lot of work for designing, building and testing. Also from what I saw in the specific thread seems it can be programmed with customized firmware or can be driven by a signal generator if necessary.

As a beginner with basic knowledge in electronics I wouldn't be able to design and build something like this and buying power amplifier for signal generator capable of only 1A maximum with just a single switching channel (like this) would cost about 300$, others capable of 2-3A could easily jump to few thousands of dollars.

Here are some photos I made (link to larger image here):

About shipment, Vidura put a low price on the package and marked it as a gift so I didn't paid any additional taxes for coming from outside of European Union.

Funny story, the customs workers were curios about what it is and what it does, I told them the electronics are a gift built by a friend and they are for a project about drones. They insisted what exactly it does and I told them the electronics are useful for calibrating the motors of a drone which I built it myself and I sent them this old video of my drone:

They were very happy for solving the mystery and released the shipment immediately as "hand-made electronics for calibrating drones motors" with no taxes laughing

Now I must find some free time to read the Switching Tool Users Guide created by Vidura to make sure I don't do something stupid and damage the modules.

Considering how busy I am at work probably it will take some time until I'm fully familiarized with it.

Fighter posted this 6 days ago

Just ordered 6 x C2M0160120D-ND MOSFETs made by Cree/Wolfspeed.

The reason I ordered more than I need for now was to meet the minimum order amount to qualify for free shipment else the shipment costs would be significant, would be the cost of 2-3 pieces.

They are kind of expensive but are super-fast and can withstand 1200V/19A and are optimized to work at high frequencies without becoming that hot like usual MOSFETs.

Thanks Vidura for telling me about them !

Bought them from DigiKey:

https://www.digikey.ro/product-detail/en/cree-wolfspeed/C2M0160120D/C2M0160120D-ND/4425548

I hope they deliver them from Europe not from US so there will be no EU taxes, but I'm not sure about this, I'll see.

For later references I'm adding the link to specs here:

https://www.wolfspeed.com/downloads/dl/file/id/169/product/11/c2m0160120d.pdf

EDIT: seems the shipment is from US...

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patrick1 posted this 5 days ago

Okay my cores arrived today !! lol DHL is not win.  5 weeks from china.. hrmm,  got fake dhl

A Thought I Have. -- and i have some catching up too do, with my ZPM. - but i think it may be very

appropriate too tune them with a HHO cell. , possibley in parallel with a globe, or as meyer says, -

a resistive load  up too 10kw electricial energy

Wistiti posted this 5 days ago

Hi Fighter. Sorry if you have already reply to this question but do you have try your system with equal turn on the POC (150t-150t or 300t-300t)?

If so what was the result?

Thank you for sharing your work!

Sincerely.

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Chris posted this 4 days ago

Hey Wistiti, and All interested,

The Turns Ratio can be calculated by the equation: sqrt( LP / LS )

My rough calculations give me a figure of: 1 : 1.8986

So almost 2 turns more on one Coil than the other. Oh also, same equation works for the Akula Stuff, his was round: 1 : 3.

Hope this helps!

   Chris

 

P.S: I cant believe more people are not paying attention here, what's right in front of their faces... Its all here... Akula's Lantern is almost exactly the same as Fighters ZPM! Which was Andrey Melnichenko's work.

Generator with nonlinear inductance

 

 

Covered many times on this and hyiq.org sites. Anyone???

Fighter posted this 4 days ago

@Wistiti: No worries about asking. No, I didn't explored that configuration but in the future I intend to try ZPMs with different coil ratios including 1:1.

For what we know for now coils asymmetry is the key for over-unity devices but honestly I would be curious about testing a 1:1 configuration of ZPM, nobody knows until it's built and tested.

Another step would be to explore other coils configurations. That could significantly increase the COP as I'm sure I didn't matched from the beginning the optimal coils configuration of this device, I just used 1:2 ratio but there could be other ratios which could have great impact on COP as you can see from these posts:

Hello everyone.

I think I know how it is possible to extract energy from the vacuum.
It turns out that the magnetic permeability behavior
It has a region in which it is negative!
As if it were a tunnel diode, it also has it.
Only in this, we draw the current from the source and its
behavior as an amplifier is real.
Because the negative region in ferromagnetic materials
It is expressed by permeability, it interacts with the vacuum.
Here the graph of their behavior.


This image is just a sample of how permeability changes
depending on the current through the inductor that makes up the system,
It is merely illustrative.
That is why there are two operating points, one is static and depends on the
load, and other dynamic and depends on the frequency.
I continue with the experiments that prove that the OU is possible, it is still a
Hypothesis not a theory.
It would not violate any thermodynamic law because it extracts the energy of an entity
We still don't understand.

@Fighter.
I still do tests to understand your experiment, but everything has to do
with magnetic permeability and standing waves.
The turns ratios must be quadratic because the inductance is.
This means that the turns ratios will be the root of 0.75, 0.5 or 0.25 of lambda for
one of your inductors N2 = SQR (n) N1, where n is one of the previous numbers.

Thank you all in advance.
YoElMiCrO.

@YoElMiCrO: In my current setup "L" coil has approx. 150 turns and "R" coil approx. 300 turns.

N2 = 150 turns, N1 = 300 turns.

So N2 = 0.5 * N1 = SQR(0.25) * N1, it matches the case where n = 0.25.

Other configurations would be:

1. N2 = SQR(0.5) * N1 = 0.70 * 300 = 210 turns for coil L where n = 0.5; Lturns / Rturns = 210/300;

2. N2 = SQR(0.75) * N1 = 0.86 * 300 = 258 turns for coil L where n = 0.75; Lturns / Rturns = 258/300.

Of course N1 can be increased or decreased too, I just calculated for N1 = 300 turns where I want to keep "R" coil as it is now and just modify "L1" coil.

Interesting, very interesting... If your hypothesis is confirmed we may have a formula to design any configuration for this device. I wonder which case is better in terms of efficiency.

Fighter posted this 3 days ago

This is not directly related to ZPM but today when adding some new files to my free-energy archive I did read again some documents containing Bearden's correspondence.

There is a paragraph saying:

Now we strongly call attention to something else in conventional electrical engineering. If one merely places a charged capacitor on top of a permanent magnet, so that the E-field of the capacitor is at right angles to the H-field of the magnet, that silly thing will sit there and pour out EM energy indefinitely, perfectly freely, by the conventional Poynting equation S = E X H which has been optimized.

That's how "difficult" it is to get extra energy flow from the vacuum. It's a piece of cake, and can be done for a dollar - anywhere, anytime in the entire universe. One can easily extract as much EM energy flow as one wishes.
That silly little capacitor and magnet already invalidates everything we were told in university about how difficult it will be to ever extract usable EM energy from the vacuum. There is also a form of the Poynting equation for a single dipole, as just the charged capacitor or the permanent magnet. It's already known and accepted.
Yet engineers believe that they have to input all the EM energy to a circuit that one can get in the circuit to use. That's not only wrong, it's a bald-faced lie after more than 100 years of that dogma (the Poynting theory dates back to the 1880s).

Did anyone tried this simple experiment ?

Could it be so simple ?...

Chris posted this 3 days ago

Hey Fighter,

We may be better to start a new thread on this subject?

Ref: Tom Bearden

 

I have done a little work here, have a little to share, but its not as good as your current path!

What you have is way better in my humble opinion. wink

   Chris

Fighter posted this 2 days ago

Hi Chris,

Oh, I don't intend to stop ZPM research but that paragraph was so intriguing that I was thinking about it all day (while working on my MOSFET driver repair and upgrade, I will add another post about this later).

What were the results of your experiment ? Did it shown any anomalies ?

Of course I don't expect this to power too much load but if it can power at least one LED (or more) I think this would would be better (at least as a self-sustaining demonstrator device) than Akula's lantern.

If you don't mind when you have some time I think sharing your experiment could pave the way for another category of devices and projects. Even if it failed in the beginning maybe it can be continued.

A new thread about this would be great ! Every idea and experiment counts.

It's intriguing enough that I feel this could be a secondary research project I could work on.

Thanks,

Fighter

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Fighter posted this 2 days ago

So yesterday and today I worked on replacing the MOSFETs in my driver and also upgrading the cooling system (making it active with coolers).

Unfortunately the electronics store I'm buying from don't have IRFP250N anymore, so I bought few pieces of IRFP250:

The active cooling system seems to be its job well, before I needed to make pauses after 5 minutes while doing experiments to give time to the MOSFET driver to cool down, now I let it run about 30 minutes and when checking the radiator from inside of the driver it was just warm, not extremely hot like it happened before after just 5 minutes.

Below are few images made during the MOSFETs replacement and cooling system upgrade (link to larger image here):

The coolers are powered separately from a 220V/12V DC power adapter so they don't interfere in any way with the experiments. Basically (as you can see in the previous images) the 12V DC power is coming to the backside of the MOSFET driver and through a jack the power is going to the front panel to a second switch which allows me to turn on or off the coolers. When that switch is turned on it's powering a second red LED (visual indicator showing me when the coolers are running) and also the two coolers.

So this is how it looks now:

So this upgrade will allow me to run longer (possible unlimited by time) experiments so I will have more time to analyze the data and the behavior of ZPM with different parameters.

About the new MOSFETs, considering the switching timing differences between MOSFETs even between those from the same series I was afraid that changing them could affect ZPM's behavior and even would be possible to not be able obtain on output its specific waveform.

Fortunately the waveform is still there, this is a test with a 12V/55W light-bulb (link to larger image here):

and this is a test with 2 x 12V/55W light-bulbs (link to larger image here):

But there is a downside of this, the switching performance of the new IRFP250 MOSFETs seems to be lower, they moved the optimum frequency down with about 24 KHZ, now the optimum frequency for a 12V/55W light-bulb on output is going down to just 97 KHz (check in previous images) while before with IRFP250N the optimum frequency was 121 KHz (below is an older image, link to larger image here):

Also you can notice the output waveform for 12V/55W light-bulb is different now, not like it was before with the older MOSFETs.

I don't like this as I know ZPM like to run at frequencies over 100 KHz, probably I will replace the current MOSFETs with the ones from Cree/WolfSpeed when they will arrive and I'll have some free time.

Except this, the next thing I will work on when I'll have some free time is to start using Vidura's PowerSwitches commanded by my signal generator, on this I'm still reading the tutorial and the details posted by Vidura.

I'm thinking to put some of those Cree/WolfSpeed MOSFETs on Vidura's PowerSwitches too, but first I'll learn to use them as they are now commanded by my signal generator.

Jagau posted this 3 hours ago

Hey fighter
excellent work
the scopeview are very close of Gunderson

 

 

 

Jagau

 

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