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Nitrogen is a key element in plant growth. It is found in all plant cells, in plant proteins and hormones, and in chlorophyll.
Atmospheric nitrogen is a source of soil nitrogen. Some plants such as legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen in their roots; otherwise fertiliser factories use nitrogen from the air to make ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea. When applied to soil, nitrogen is converted to mineral form, nitrate, so that plants can take it up.
Soils high in organic matter such as chocolate soils are generally higher in nitrogen than podzolic soils. Nitrate is easily leached out of soil by heavy rain, resulting in soil acidification. You need to apply nitrogen in small amounts often so that plants use all of it, or in organic form such as composted manure, so that leaching is reduced.
Phosphorus helps transfer energy from sunlight to plants, stimulates early root and plant growth, and hastens maturity.
Very few Australian soils have enough phosphorus for sustained crop and pasture production and the North Coast is no exception. The most common phosphorus source on the North Coast is superphosphate, made from rock phosphate and sulfuric acid. All manures contain phosphorus; manure from grain-fed animals is a particularly rich source.
Potassium increases vigour and disease resistance of plants, helps form and move starches, sugars and oils in plants, and can improve fruit quality.
Potassium is low or deficient on many of the sandier soils of the North Coast. Also, heavy potassium removal can occur on soils used for intensive grazing and intensive horticultural crops (such as bananas and custard apples).
Muriate of potash and sulfate of potash are the most common sources of potassium.
Calcium is essential for root health, growth of new roots and root hairs, and the development of leaves. It is generally in short supply in the North Coast's acid soils. Lime, gypsum, dolomite and superphosphate (a mixture of calcium phosphate and calcium sulfate) all supply calcium. Lime is the cheapest and most suitable option for the North Coast; dolomite is useful for magnesium and calcium deficiencies, but if used over a long period will unbalance the calcium/magnesium ratio. Superphosphate is useful where calcium and phosphorus are needed.
Magnesium is a key component of chlorophyll, the green colouring material of plants, and is vital for photosynthesis (the conversion of the sun's energy to food for the plant). Deficiencies occur mainly on sandy acid soils in high rainfall areas, especially if used for intensive horticulture or dairying. Heavy applications of potassium in fertilisers can also produce magnesium deficiency, so banana growers need to watch magnesium levels because bananas are big potassium users.
Magnesium deficiency can be overcome with dolomite (a mixed magnesium-calcium carbonate), magnesite (magnesium oxide) or epsom salts (magnesium sulfate).
Sulfur is a constituent of amino acids in plant proteins and is involved in energy-producing processes in plants. It is responsible for many flavour and odour compounds in plants such as the aroma of onions and cabbage.
Sulfur deficiency is not a problem in soils high in organic matter, but it leaches easily. On the North Coast seaspray is a major source of atmospheric sulfur. Superphosphate, gypsum, elemental sulfur and sulfate of ammonia are the main fertiliser sources.
Iron is a constituent of many compounds that regulate and promote growth and is readily available in the North Coast's acid soils. Manganese (Mn) Manganese helps with photosynthesis. It is freely available in the North Coast's acid soils, often in toxic amounts in very acid soils, but can be deficient in sandy soils. Toxicity is remedied with lime.
Copper is an essential constituent of enzymes in plants and is readily available in North Coast soils, although it can be deficient in red soils. Overuse of another trace element, molybdenum, can cause copper deficiency in animals. Toxicity can be a problem for horticulturists who regularly use Bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride sprays to control diseases on horticultural crops.
Zinc helps in the production of a plant hormone responsible for stem elongation and leaf expansion. It is readily available in acid soils, but combines easily with iron in the North Coast's red soils. This is easily cured with the addition of zinc sulfate or crushed zinc minerals. Fruit trees can be sprayed with zinc.
Boron helps with the formation of cell walls in rapidly growing tissue. Deficiency reduces the uptake of calcium and inhibits the plant's ability to use it. It is chronically deficient in North Coast soils used for horticulture but this is easily remedied with borax applied to the soil.
Molybdenum helps bacteria and soil organisms convert nitrogen in the air to soluble nitrogen compounds in the soil, so is particularly needed by legumes. It is also essential in the formation of proteins from soluble nitrogen compounds.
Molybdenum deficiency is prevalent in the North Coast's acid soils, but can be remedied easily with applications of Mo super, molybdenum trioxide (applied during inoculation and lime pelleting of legume seed), or sodium molybdate (sprayed on young emerging plants).
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