Potential idea for induced-superconductivity voltage pump

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  • Last Post 16 January 2019
Prometheus posted this 06 October 2018

Here's an idea:

{EDIT: updated as my brain cogitates this}

4 wires, three of which carry current in one direction, with the 'back-haul' current going through the bottom wire.

The center two wires are connected together with a very thin (super?)conductive strip (colored red in picture above). The wires have to be very small for the effect to work.

What does this get us?

Well, the electrons in the left-hand and right-hand wires will push upward on the electrons in the top wire. Action/reaction... the electrons in the top wire will increase in energy and push downward on the electrons in the left-hand and right-hand wires.

At the same time, the relatively more positively-charged bottom wire is exerting a downward force upon the electrons in the middle wires.

This creates an energy profile (shown in blue in the image above). Two energy hills and an energy well.

What does this get us?

We get energy 'hills' on the left-hand and right-hand wires, and an energy 'well' on the connector between those two wires. This tends to push the electrons in those wires together (into the energy well)... rather than repulsing each other, they should combine, forming Cooper pairs.

The Cooper pairs migrate to the central conductive strip between the two middle wires.

What do Cooper pairs get us?

Well, if the wires are small enough and the voltage high enough (giving a highly-sloped energy profile sufficient to form Cooper pairs), that gets us room-temperature forced superconductivity. Usually, superconductivity is a result of electron-phonon interaction (with the phonon being the collective motion of the positively-charged metal lattice), requiring very low temperatures so that the electron-phonon interaction isn't disrupted by thermal energy (the interaction is very low energy, and easily disrupted). The effect described here doesn't suffer such limitations... as long as current of sufficient voltage flows, the electrons have no choice but to pair.

At the same time, we should get a voltage magnification effect in the top wire because of that energy profile pushing the electrons in that wire into a higher energy state, while in the bottom wire there is a lower energy state for the same reason.

It's an induced-superconductivity voltage pump... the electrons in the middle wires combining into Cooper pairs cause the electrons in the upper and lower wires to reach higher and lower energy states, respectively, increasing the voltage.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooper_pair

Cooper showed that an arbitrarily small attraction between electrons in a metal can cause a paired state of electrons to have a lower energy than the Fermi energy, which implies that the pair is bound.

The Fermi energy is the difference between the highest and lowest energetic states, and can be thought of as the average energy.

That "lower energy than the Fermi energy" leaves some energy which must be transferred elsewhere... it is transferred into an increased voltage between the upper and lower conductors.

 

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Chris posted this 06 October 2018

That's a great idea Prometheus!

   Chris

Prometheus posted this 06 October 2018

It was just an idea I had when I was thinking about my prior comments on energy hills and wells. I don't think I've got the geometry quite right, though, to take into account all the EM interaction effects. It may be the top/bottom and two middle conductors have to be at 90 degrees to each other (top conductor vertical, middle conductors horizontal and parallel to each other, bottom conductor horizontal at a 90 degree angle to the middle conductors). I'll let my brain chew on it a bit, then update the thread.

If that's the case, though, then the physical layout makes putting the thing together much more difficult.

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Vidura posted this 06 October 2018

Looks great, although I cant follow in detail the QM interaction, there could result useful applications.Thinking practically considering manufacturing processes , could the two middle wires touch each other and then be coated to provide the conductive link?

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Prometheus posted this 07 October 2018

No, the center conductor would most likely need to be a high temperature superconductor (HTS) material. Once the Cooper pairs are formed, we want to use the material which will make them as long-lived as possible.

Making Your Own Superconductors

So ideally, it'd be a thin, narrow strip of HTS material sandwiched between the two middle wires, and the whole thing coated with insulation to keep it together. Or perhaps conductive tape for the wires, with the HTS between the middle conductors. Conductive tape would make it easier to fabricate the whole thing.

Interestingly, in a regular superconductor, it's not all Cooper pairs... there have to exist some single electrons or the superconductivity collapses. It's not the material which makes the superconductivity, it's the energy profile (the energy 'hill' and 'well'). It's just that certain materials inherently have the necessary profile by dint of their crystalline lattice, but the same effect can be had via other means, such as above.

 

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Prometheus posted this 07 October 2018

Now, putting this all together... imagine an electromagnet made of such a quad-conductor.

We put a small high-voltage current through the regular conductors to set up a superconducting current. The HTS material is 'short-circuited' (remember, HTS material is electrically resistive to single electrons, but not to Cooper pairs, which are considered a superfluid... and copper exhibits residual resistance to Cooper pairs... so the two currents are separated (elements which are good conductors are not superconductors)) such that the superconducting current can flow around in a continuous loop, whereas the regular current goes through a typical circuit.

The 'short-circuit' area where the superconducting material loops back would need to be carefully designed such that the energy profile is still maintained in that region.

What does this get us? Well, the superconducting circuit could be used as a type of energy storage device with very little power required to maintain it. The only problem I see with this is that you can build up literally thousands of kilowatts worth of circulating power (single electrons are spin 1/2 particles, but Cooper pairs have spin 0, so rather than being fermions (as single electrons are), they are composite bosons and thus don't obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle... they can occupy the same space in the same quantum state, allowing massive circulating currents to build up)... and even a brief interruption of the electrical supply immediately ceases the superconductivity, leading to a massive electrical surge. Of course, with the wires cooled below their critical temperature, that wouldn't be a problem, but that gets us right back to the problem inherent in regular superconductors... the requirement of cooling. But at least it wouldn't require as much HTS material, since we're only relying upon the HTS to carry the superconducting current, rather than initiate it.

Another use is as an electromagnet... it'd be incredibly strong due to the buildup of superconducting current. Niobium-titanium superconducting material would get it to about 30 Tesla. Remember, we don't have to worry about being above the critical temperature as long as current flows, since we're not relying upon the superconducting material to form and maintain the Cooper pairs; and the interaction energy for this method is much higher than that in superconducting material... regular superconductors have to be cooled because their interaction energy is only on the order of 0.01 eV (whereas the room-temperature random thermal energy is on the order of 0.04 eV) so random thermal energy can easily blow it out (superconductivity quench), whereas we would get multiple eV interaction energy, dependent upon voltage.

Another use is via a superconductor's superdiamagnetism (Meisner Effect)... think along the lines of magnetically levitating bullet trains.

Another use would be as a briefcase-sized EMP device... that circulating power, once the electrical supply is interrupted, would result in an electromagnetic pulse. It'd be much more energetic than a Flux Compression Generator could produce. Combining the above with the FCG concept would produce an even more intense EMP.

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Prometheus posted this 08 October 2018

Just had a thought... current doesn't have to actually flow in the top and bottom conductors, since we're merely using the electrostatic field to induce a potential gradient such that there is an energy well into which electrons fall, combine into Cooper pairs and are held in that state by the energy profile (the energy 'well').

So it's sufficient merely to maintain the top and bottom conductors at a high differential voltage, without current flow.

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Prometheus posted this 09 October 2018

What's interesting is that Poincare, Thompson and Einstein all worked on the internal structure of the electron. Poincare came the closest, he realized that Thompson's m=(4/3) E/c2 electron mass couldn't be correlated to Einstein's E=mc2 equation unless there was an internal force holding the electron together against the Coulombic repulsive force.

He found that the internal magnetic force (what he called a Poincare stress, and others called a negative cosmological constant) holding the electron together accounted for the rest of its mass, making the total electrostatic and magnetic energy of the electron equal to its rest mass, and therefore E=mc2.

In fact, Poincare arrived at his conclusion just a few months prior to Einstein's 1905 paper which introduced the mass-energy equivalency concept. Einstein is famous for expanding it to E2=p2c2 + m2c4, correlating massive and massless particles with energy and momentum.

So in an electron (an electromagnetic particle consisting solely of EM waves per QFT), the magnetism is forced inside the radius of the electron (holding the particle together), whereas the charge is forced outside (like two layers of a hollow sphere).

{ASIDE}

The same effect takes place in AC current-carrying wires, and increases with increasing frequency, which gives us the skin effect. It also takes place in transformer cores. Why only with AC? Think about what a charged particle such as an electron is... a harmonic oscillator. An AC current is analogous to the harmonic oscillations which make up the electron, creating on a macroscopic scale the same effect which not only holds an electron together, but gives it its charge!

{/ASIDE}

Upon experiencing relative motion or angular acceleration, some of that magnetism is allowed outside the radius of the electron, manifesting a magnetic field... the faster the relative motion or angular acceleration, the more the electrostatic field appears as a magnetic field.

This is why we have relativistic mass... as the translational movement velocity of a charged particle (electron, proton, quark) increases (ie: acceleration), the magnetic field of the particle itself becomes more pronounced, and interacts with the quantum vacuum by scattering the Fulling-Davies-Unruh radiation (an accelerating frame will see as real those particles which an inertial frame sees as virtual) of the quantum vacuum wavemodes impinging upon the particle's inherent magnetic field. This lends the appearance of inertia to the particle, which we sense as relativistic mass.

The Fulling-Davies-Unruh Effect means that inside a permanent magnet, the bound electrons (undergoing angular acceleration) do not see the virtual photons as virtual! They see them as real photons, as light (which is why they can interact with them via loop divergences to gain energy via absorption and emission of those real/virtual photons). Only in our frame of reference (and in the frame of reference of the stationary nuclei of the magnetic material) are they virtual. Thus the real (from the bound electron's frame) / virtual (from the magnet's nuclei's frame) photons can traverse through the magnet. The universe is indeed a very weird place.

With Cooper pairs, since they have charge 2e and mass 2me, their radius must decrease. I'm still trying to conceive of what happens to the classical electron radius upon superposition in a superconductor, since the Cooper pair is a composite boson and more than one of them can be in the same place at the same time (violate Pauli's Exclusion Principle), which single electrons cannot do, since they are fermions.

 

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Prometheus posted this 16 January 2019

Hmmm... a further enhancement might be had by using ferromagnetic material for the wires and magnetizing the top and side wires all in the same direction, with the bottom wire magnetized anti-parallel.

This creates, in addition to the 'energy well' that forms Cooper pairs, a pseudo-Spin Valve effect. Electrical current in one direction in the side wires (the top and bottom wires don't carry current, they just have a voltage differential to generate the energy profile to create Cooper pairs) is nearly unhindered, whereas in the opposite direction, resistance is high. In a Spin Valve, there are two ferromagnetic materials with different coercivities. When the magnetic fields of the two materials are parallel, electrical resistance is lower, when they are anti-parallel, electrical resistance is higher.

So the top and bottom wires would need to be of a higher coercivity than the two side wires, and the bottom wire would need to be oppositely magnetized. This prevents the so-called 'orbital effect' (Zeeman interaction) of the magnetic field from causing electron spin-flip scattering and keeps the Cooper pairs aligned along a "channel" of magnetic flux between the top and side wires.

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1510.00713.pdf

The idea of combining superconducting and magnetic order was inititated in the late 1950s when Ginzburg [13] demonstrated theoretically that the electrons within a Cooper pair in a conventional superconductor will eventually be torn apart due to the so-called orbital effect: in the presence of a magnetic field, the Lorentzian force acts differentially on the oppositely aligned electron spins of a pair.

Moreover, the Zeeman interaction between spins and a magnetic field favors a parallel alignment, meaning that for a strong enough magnetic field the pairs are energetically unstable as one electron of a pair is required to spin-flip scatter.

However, there exists a way to avoid this problem. The two-fermion correlation function f describing Cooper pairs is subject to the Pauli principle, meaning that the spin-part does not necessarily have to be in a spinsinglet [9] antisymmetric state ( ↑↓ − ↓↑ ). So long as f is antisymmetric under an overall exchange of fermions 1 ↔ 2, which includes the space, spin, and time coordinates of the two electrons, the Pauli principle is satisfied. This means that Cooper pairs can reside in a spin-triplet state which is symmetric under fermion exchange - that is, 1/√2 ( ↑↓ + ↓↑ ), ↑↑, or ↓↓ - as long as f changes sign under an exchange of space- and time-coordinates as well, allowing for odd-in-time (or odd-frequency) pairing [10–12]. Such a spin- triplet state can coexist with a magnetic field since the Zeeman interaction due to the magnetization is no longer having a pair- breaking effect on the Cooper pairs so long as the orbital effect is suppressed.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin_valve

Spin valves work because of a quantum property of electrons (and other particles) called spin. Due to a split in the density of states of electrons at the Fermi energy in ferromagnets, there is a net spin polarisation. An electric current passing through a ferromagnet therefore carries both charge and a spin component. In comparison, a normal metal has an equal number of electrons with up and down spins so, in equilibrium situations, such materials can sustain a charge current with a zero net spin component. However, by passing a current from a ferromagnet into a normal metal it is possible for spin to be transferred. A normal metal can thus transfer spin between separate ferromagnets, subject to a long enough spin diffusion length.

Spin transmission depends on the alignment of magnetic moments in the ferromagnets. If a current is passing into a ferromagnet whose majority spin is spin up, for example, then electrons with spin up will pass through relatively unhindered, while electrons with spin down will either 'reflect' or spin flip scatter to spin up upon encountering the ferromagnet to find an empty energy state in the new material. Thus if both the fixed and free layers are polarised in the same direction, the device has relatively low electrical resistance, whereas if the applied magnetic field is reversed and the free layer's polarity also reverses, then the device has a higher resistance due to the extra energy required for spin flip scattering.

The above (spin transmission) is how my triboelectric charge separation motor idea works. We steal angular momentum from the permanent magnet's electrons (reducing their orbital radius) and use it to spin a rotor due to a frame-dependent magnetic field attempting to conserve angular momentum with the permanent magnet's field, whereupon the electrons in the permanent magnet regain their usual angular momentum (orbital radius) by absorbing energy from the constructively-interfering wavemodes of the quantum vacuum.

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The great Nikola Tesla:

Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point of the universe. This idea is not novel. Men have been led to it long ago go by instinct or reason. It has been expressed in many ways, and in many places, in the history of old and new. We find it in the delightful myth of Antheus, who drives power from the earth; we find it among the subtle speculations of one of your splendid mathematicians, and in many hints and statements of thinkers of the present time. Throughout space there is energy. Is this energy static or kinetic? If static, our hopes are in vain; if kinetic - and this we know it is for certain - then it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature.

Experiments With Alternate Currents Of High Potential And High Frequency (February 1892).

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