Nano Second Pulses

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Chris posted this 21 September 2017

The Spark Gap was a common component to many devices back in the day, we still have some applications for it now.

The Great Nikola Tesla perhaps made the Spark Gap famous in his Tesla Coil:

We have seen this many times, many times in different application, circuits replacing the functions of the Spark Gap, some call it a Nano Pulser, a Nano Generator, Generator of Nano Second Impulse (GNSI), and many other names exist for such a technique!

One I am fond of, due to the openness of it, was Dally! Real name: Edward Lee

 His circuit was very well shown:

 

The function, to inject a very short duration pulse, at high Voltage, into a Coil that is in close proximity to Bucking Coils! The list of people that have used this is endless: Tariel Kapanadze, Ruslan, Akula, all used this technique many times

It is my opinion, that this is a method of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, some have called this Ferro Magnetic Resonance, a few different names have been used!

I have build a few Circuits, copied from Dally, but my Nano Pulser circuits were too slow, only around 500 Nano Seconds.

   

   

It is critical to be around 10 Nano Seconds or less!

The above Images were given to me by a friend. This friend knows Ruslan Kulabuhov, has worked with him from time to time. Built Circuits for him.

   Chris

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alohalaoha posted this 21 September 2017

I have build a few Circuits, copied from Dally, but my Nano Pulser circuits were too slow, only around 500 Nano Seconds.

Chris my friend, your DDT - diode drive transformer (big dark green ring) is very wrong. You need very small ferrite toroidal ring core with very thin wire. Also you can boost high voltage to any desired level simply by serialy connecting multiple Drift Step Recovery Diodes or DSRD-s. For boosting PEP or peak power level of your nanopulse you need connect DSRD-s in parallel and also in series and tune your HV storage capacitor for best nanopulse shape. Make it from several smaller HV caps. .

Also your Owon oscilloscope is little worth with his low bandwidth of only 100MHz. You need some LeCroy or Tektronix with minimum 500MHz bandwidth and factory calibrated attenuators 40, 60, 80 dB designed specialy for high voltages.

 Aloha

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alohalaoha posted this 21 September 2017

Silver rose transistor is special military grade KT926 transistor. He need big ammount of current injected in base to work properly.

Between nanopulse former IC 7400hc/hct and transistor put very high speed high peak current driver for example UCC37322 - 9A low side driver. Also driver can be inverted or non-inverted type because you can choose polarity of triggering with K1 selector switch. Russian ferrite marking 2000НМ is Manganese Zinc type with µi >= 2000. Also instead КТ926А could be used any high speed - high current mosfet or igbt transistor. Also UCC 37322 driver could be put in parallel (one over one's back) for higher output current ratings for high power transistors with bigger input capacitance.

Dally windings W1=6, W2 = 12.

Ferrite cores specs here

http://www.magneton.ru/cat.php?id=134

Do not forget to decouple ICs Vdd-Vss (14,7) with 100nF ceramic caps. Also all inputs should have grounded guard rings. Best point for main ground is emitter of transistor.

scaling picture for details.

Aloha

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Chris posted this 21 September 2017

Hi Aloha - Thanks. Yes I did change the Core, I used a ferrite.This picture was an early version of my attempt to replicate the Nano Pulser.

I hope you don't mind, I fixed the picture. It wasn't loading.

This is an excellent diagram thank you!

   Chris

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Chris posted this 22 September 2017

I have spent a little time, trying to make my Nano Pulse much shorter in Duration.

Currently the best I can get is 10ns.

 

 

NOTE: R1 is not needed, if one wishes, a short can be placed in between pins 3 and 5 - I placed the resistor there for correctness.

Because my Scope is beyond the rated bandwidth (100MHz), 5ns is 200MHz, there are artefacts I have seen: 10x attenuation is not accurate, and I have shown 10x, 1x is more accurate and the output voltage is from 1.8 to 2.4 volts. This means a carefully selected Transistor will be needed.

Aloha is right, my equipment is not the best, not really fast enough, but we must learn to do the best with what we have. You can see, there is a pretty good pulse there, around 10 Nano Seconds, with a sharp Rise Time of about 6 Nano Seconds.

This should be enough to get a good response from a Mosfet, or a Transistor, if one is looking to replicate the works of the greats that require the Nano Pulser:

 Most Energy Devices require Nano Pulses of some sort. This is a very important field to know about!

   Chris

 

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Chris posted this 22 September 2017

Some may see that there is some correlation to my wave and the wave form Akula showed some time back.

   

We have a double Pulse after the initial pulse:

 

And compared to the Waveform from Akula: (Please remember this is at the Mosfet gate an d the Drain)

 

You can see there is two very short pulses after the initial Pulse, somewhat of a damped oscilation. It may just be coincidence, and this may not mean anything. But, something to watch for as you experiment! Turn on English Subtitles, Google does an absolute awefull job at Translation, but there is a lot of talk about Nano Second, Milli-Second and pulses of very short duration!

I have said this before, I believe this triggers Electron Spin Resonance!

Some have called this Ferro Resonance, Magnetic Resonance and so on. I would like to stay open minded at the moment about this.

Although Akula sold his soul, he has done a lot to help out the rest of humanity!

   Chris

 

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alohalaoha posted this 22 September 2017

Sergei alias Edward Lee Dally home page

http://www.liveinternet.ru/users/edward_lee

CHRIS, now you may try replicate Dally. Examine and research windngs of his coil and you will find same partnered coils L7-L8 wounded in W.J.Hooper configuration and introduced sharp several kV nano pulse.

You can use old computer PSU for like inverter.

Aloha

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alohalaoha posted this 22 September 2017

If you are interested i can give you further details about the coil ?

Best ever drawn pictures of Tesla 1.) and Hooper bifilar 2,)

Main Dally schematic. Keep in mind he made his BTG with very old 1MHz oscilloscope.

Now look carefully at markings 7 and 8. it represent main thing here. Connected to them is thin coaxial cable 50om RG50. More visual details at attached pictures.

Coils info - see attached pictures

1-фото - общий вид  - picture 1 main coil view
2-фото -48 витков - p2  minus 48 windings
3-фото -59 витков - p3 minus 59 w
4-фото -66 витков - p4 minus 66 w
5-фото -70 витков - p5 minus 70w

Итого: верхняя обмотка 83 витка. Upper winding 83 w

Under top winding coaxial 21 w marking RG50U - p7 and p8
Под ней: коаксиал - 21 виток RG50U.(фото 7, 8)

Под коаксиалом 159 витков провода 0,85 мм.(фото 9,10) Under coax 159 w, wire 0.85mm diameter - p9,p10

Далее 475 витков провода 0,33мм (фото 11,12,13,14)

Next under 475 w, wire 0.33mm - p11,p12,p13, p14

L10 is resonance coil 0.85mm conected only at several 1.5uF/400V capacitors in parallel tuned for resonance with main push-pull frequency.

L9 is output coil, 2.5 mm, top coil on pictures.

Tube is plastic with 46 mm diameter.

Need good grounding - copper pipe in background and thick cable to BTG. Could be welding cable.

Also worth try any Arduiono board with ATMega328 as push-pull generator instead TL494 with precise, duty cycle and pulse duration control.

Aloha

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Chris posted this 22 September 2017

Hi Aloha, I was hoping to make a team effort. It seems we have a lot that are here but not interested.

For a long time I have decided what to share publically. I have tried to be very careful to share what I am certain of, and try not to speculate too much, although I have from time to time.

I hope others here can see the point of my postings. Small pieces of Hard Data.

Yes please, I have a lot of the details, but yes, please lets share what we have saved from the history record!

 

I also have some images, looks like you have already posted.

Many Thanks

   Chris

 

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alohalaoha posted this 22 September 2017

You have big undershoot there. Almost bipolar pulse which is bad for Dally circuit. Try to correct it. Nano pulser need new smd pcb design and different manufecturers version of 7400 IC - HC, HCT, AC, ACT etc. But worth making universal nanopulser for free energy experiments.

Reg

Aloha

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Chris posted this 22 September 2017

Hi Aloha, thanks for posting the images!

Yes, there is. shouldn't be too hard to fix.

   Chris

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Chris posted this 24 September 2017

It is worth noting, the Rotary Transformer, Tinman's inception of Partnered Output Coils, had a Spark Gap.

AC and DC Brush Motors commonly have problems with the Arcing:

 

We know that at the right frequency, there is a phenomena that we are looking for, where the spectrum contains resonant frequencies, and the Dead Field, Bucking Field, Partnered Output Coils can be used.

   Chris

 

gnosticman posted this 26 September 2017

This is an excellent thread.  Thanks Aloha and Chris.

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Zanzal posted this 26 September 2017

Wow, good work on getting down to 10ns Chris.

I was able to get decent looking 60ns square pulses using an overclocked ESP-12 microcontroller, a TC4420 gate driver, and CSD19503KCS n-channel mosfet. That combo costs around $5. I was going for faster but I also want to do it using all purpose parts that can be used for other circuit designs, cheap to replace, and using only through hole components, to keep things simple. Having a signal pulse < 10ns can be done by finding a really high speed MCU. But finding a really fast mosfet and mosfet driver that won't cost a fortune to replace is not. So far this is the best I was able to come up with. Maybe someone can suggest a faster gate driver that works reliably at 10-12V (preferably one that isn't too expensive)?

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Chris posted this 26 September 2017

Hi Zanzal, yeah, its hard to get a good combination, fast enough to handle these sorts of speeds!

200MHz is not much these days, but it seems to me that this is a NON off the shelf type of Hardware Combination. Mostly requiring Military Grade Hardware.

The output from my SN74AC00N is around 10ns, but adding a Mosfet can very easily push the time out to 100ns.

The Gate Capacitance is the problem. Some Transistors I have tried are good, around 14ns, but some have a slow Off Time.

  • D1413
  • D1273-P
  • C4793
  • C1969
  • D2058

Really, none of these is ideal. all too slow! But these are some of the best I have found at the moment!

What we should be keeping in mind, is that Most of what we have seen Hardware wise, from our friends in Russia, is Military Grade Hardware. Often close to impossible to get easily and cheaply here in the Western World, due to restrictions placed on us by the powers that be.

A Spark Gap is still an option. So fear not!

In the Rotary Transformer, we saw very sharp impulses, from the Spark, Arching of the brushes:

 

All the sharp impulses seen in the above Scope Shot, are Impulses from Induction, Sparking or Arching from the Brushes. 

I hope this helps some or others reading.

   Chris

 

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Zanzal posted this 26 September 2017

The Gate Capacitance is the problem. Some Transistors I have tried are good, around 14ns, but some have a slow Off Time.

  • D1413
  • D1273-P
  • C4793
  • C1969
  • D2058

Really, none of these is ideal. all too slow! But these are some of the best I have found at the moment!

I read somewhere that turn off time can be reduced by preventing the transistor from becoming saturated. There are two ways to do this. The easiest way is to increase base resistance, but that might slow down turn on time. The other way is to use a Schottky diode between collector and base (See: Schottky transistor). Finding the right Schottky for the application is a bit beyond my current knowledge. May also be possible to use a Zener diode in place of a resistor on the base to avoid using a resistor/schottky but get a similar effect.

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Chris posted this 26 September 2017

Hi Zanzal, I have tried a few things. No real success yet.

A TIP122 gives me a slightly better result.

   Chris

 

alohalaoha posted this 27 September 2017

Use mosfetS instead.

irf 644, irf 740, or better variant any with high DS admittance. for example with ID >= 50A and

IDM >= 200A.

your small ferrite core should work in saturation - in bistabile mode - kind of magnetic compression and decompression.

Forgot - RF-choke must be designed as high current type 80-100A and more, like for example output stage of hf transmitters. use impulse capacitors here for decoupling. also you may rise direct current voltage at 300V-400V depend of breakdown voltage of your mosfet.

PS. if you make all what nano pulser needs - you will get 100kWt peak power in nanosec impulse.

Aloha

 

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Chris posted this 27 September 2017

Hi Aloha, I have tried, but the IC can not drive the Mosfet, and none of my current Mosfet Drivers, MCP1403, are fast enough.

Looking into whats available out there, but many look to be too slow. 60ns turn on delay times.

The Driver you suggested has a UCC37322, has a 20ns delay time, 35 off delay time. This might be too slow also?

There is the IX4426 Series, with less than 10ns...

No DIP's, still might be ok.

I am not an EE Guru, so tend to struggle a little with some of this stuff.

An interesting read: Hybrid MOSFET/Driver for Ultra-Fast Switching

   Chris

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Chris posted this 27 September 2017

To all reading and studding, I really want to push you to read the following paper:

This paper is an unbelievable read! It covers data that we have looked at already, for example the Acceleration of Electrons and Ions. However this is a very detailed read about the different technologies hat can achieve this task!

Electrons that are accelerated in the intense electric fields inside the gap immediately before breakdown collide with the anode and produce ultraviolet light and soft x rays. This radiation may then liberate additional electrons by the photoelectric effect.


It is important to recognize that ionization by collision cannot be responsible for producing the initial electron that starts the avalanche process. However, once an initial electron is available in an intense electric field, ionization by collision cant be an efficient mechanism for exponential growth of the number of free electrons.

And:

The key feature to creating an arc discharge is to make a large number of electrons available for current between the electrodes. There are a surprisingly large number of ways to produce a free electron from an atom. The different production mechanisms are listed below. We then discuss each mechanism in the context of its application in miniature spark gaps for protection.


1. Photoelectric effect. An incident photon (usually ultraviolet light, x rays, or low-energy gamma rays) is absorbed by an atom and an electron is liberated. This effect can occur in gases or at the surface of conductors and insulators.
2. Compton c"fect. An incident photon can be elastically scattered by an electron in an atom, with the release of a photon of lesser energy and a recoil electron.
13
3. Pair production. An incident photon with sufficiently high energy can interact with an atoni and create an electron-positron pair.
4. Bcuz decay. An electron, which is also called a "beta particle," is emitted during decay of certain radioactive isotopes.
5. Ionization by collision. Ionization by collision requires incident particles with sufficiently large kinetic energy. These incident particles can be produced in several ways:
(a) alpha particle or an electron with kinetic energy greater than about 30 eV, (b) any charged particle in an intense electric field, or (c) neutral particles at high temperatures (e.g., in flames or arcs).
6. Field emission. Electrons can be "pulled out" of a solid surface by an electric field on the order of 108 Vom-1.
7. Thermionic emission. At relatively high temperatures, electrons are "boiled off" from metal surfaces. (This effect was used to supply electrons in vacuum tubes; the filament or heater circuit supplied the thermal energy for thermionic emission.)

 

Taking note of the graphs, most are around the 5 to 10 Nano Second range, the same range we are aiming for! This paper is an excellent read! Please take some time to read it over!

The paper is also attached below if it all of a sudden disappears:

   Chris

 

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alohalaoha posted this 27 September 2017

Chris,

sub-nanosecond pulse duration and pulse amplitude depend only from chosen drift step recovery diodes. I suggest you as nanosecond generator old Russian Military diode Д247.

You can find them easy at ebay.ru

http://www.ebay.com/itm/10x-D247B-1N2236-500V-5A-USSR-Military-Russian-Rectifier-Diode-/192303279353?hash=item2cc62b2cf9:g:gXYAAOSwj0NUjbzN

Datasheet

http://rudatasheet.ru/diodes/d247

Revovery time can be further shorten applying additional negative voltage at catode Д247.

Buy first you must compress magnetic field in your ferrite ring. Use small ring with very high permeability. If you can find ferrites with permeability > 10 000 try them. you need to correct windings ratio to 1:1 or 1:1,25 (primary:secondary), Use litz wire diameter 0,25mm here if you can't find teflon wire same diameter. In parallel to primary use 15ЕТН06 or better high speed diode.

i suggest you for logic Russian КР1533ЛА3 as generator and American 74АС00РС as pulse duration former.

for driver any high speed. you can parallel drivers to get high current pulse - for example put 6 UCC37322 in parallel and you will get almost 50A peak current with speed of single driver. If you have 30A high speed drivers put 3 of them and you will have 100a peak current. This will additional short swith on time of your mosfet because parasitic input capacitance cgs will be charged much faster. best result will give you mosfets with peak drain current over 100-200A.

P.S. public your schematics - generator, high voltage supply, nanosecond generator for analyse and further update.

Reg

Aloha

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alohalaoha posted this 27 September 2017

2.2 KV nanopulse at 50 om real impedance - almost 97kWT peak envelope power. pictures from oscilloscope С1-75

.

 

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Evostars posted this 2 weeks ago

my take on the nano pulse : 1, pulse a high inductance coil with current producing a strong magnetic field.

  1. open the circuit with a fast mosfet.

3 the back emf produced is stored via a fast diode into a capacitor.

4 the capacitor is discharged via a second fast mosfet. this mosfet is conducting for the duration if the pulse (50nS or less) 5 a hef4528b is used to create the gate pulse. first channel is used for the phase shift, second channel creates the nano pulse.

6 a gate drive tranformer is used to trigger the gate of the mosfet.

7 the capacitor is discharged via the mosfet into a second coil that is already resonant from the pulses of the first coil.

still working on this. the idea is the back emf is re used into the resonant coil, increasing the enerfy.

the sine is the resonant coil, the nanopulse is the capacitor discharge.

a quad core computer in my pocket, but a car still needs fuel

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Chris posted this 2 weeks ago

Hey Evostars - For me, I am still out on this topic. 

I have thought long and hard on this, many, many things could be going on, The Atom is a structure that responds to External Magnetic and Electric Fields.

Theory says there should be no Electromagnetic Induction, but I am still undecided here also.

Is each Electron push to a Higher Orbital? Do we have Electron Hopping? Is there any Voltage Gain in the Output Coil?

I am sorry I cant be more help, wish I could.

   Chris 

Tarotbug posted this 2 weeks ago

Hi fellers re nano purser has any one got a copy layout of the top card (Alloha) nano pulsar  PCB I can have a look at plse

and has any one tried playing with an XOR chip to see if it's possible to get any better than the 10 nsec pulse as this is the minimum time of the reference voltage grab from the dipole.

I'm also interested if any one has a working or part working device.

Regards Tarotbug

 

 

Zanzal posted this 2 weeks ago

Hi fellers re nano purser has any one got a copy layout of the top card (Alloha) nano pulsar  PCB I can have a look at plse

Greetings Tarotbug,

Can you link the schematic, image, or post you are referring too?

Here is some good info on using a Step Recovery Diode for a Pulse Generator: 

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1610.07115.pdf

 

Jagau posted this 2 weeks ago

Hello everyone.

You are in the subject i am experiencing this times.

if i can afford i have a circuit that will interest you a lot.

It is a nanopulser circuit very simple to build using only 2 semiconductors , a 2n3904 and a mosfet like IRF510

I reached 5 ns with this circuit and it is very easy to modify.

This circuit work in avalanche transistor mode. I will let you know about my developments.

Jagau

 

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Jagau posted this 2 weeks ago

Hello everyone.

You are in the subject i am experiencing this times.

if i can afford i have a circuit that will interest you a lot.

It is a nanopulser circuit very simple to build using only 2 semiconductors , a 2n3904 and a mosfet like IRF510

I reached 5 ns with this circuit and it is very easy to modify.

This circuit work in avalanche transistor mode. I will let you know about my developments.

Jagau

 

 

The components as close as possible to another. 

On the scope we can see with an impedance match the nanoseconds reached. 

The next step is the gate protected mosfet with a zener diode. 

With this circuit we can have discharge up to one kilivolts.

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