# The Input Coil

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Chris posted this 14 July 2018

My Friends,

In DC Switched Machines, the Input Coil plays a very important role.

Two things are achieved:

1. Creates a Magnetic Field in the Device.
2. Induces an E.M.F, or a Voltage on the terminals of the Output Coils.

There is another way to think about this, the Magnetic A Vector Potential is an Electric Field with Curl:

One could say that it is the Magnetic A Vector Potential that is disturbed:

When you find the AB effect is indeed invoked, then you can adjust the magnitude of the E-fields produced in the A-potential reservoir by dA/dt. That means you adjust the rise time and decay time of the input pulses. Also play around with frequency (each unit has its own "sweet spot").

Ref: http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/061603.htm

We have heard this many times before, but one example comes to mind:

I'm not allowed to give any more hints than that, except to point out that wire size and numbers of windings are also variables you must investigate rather thoroughly. They do have great effect on the COP.

Ref: http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/061603.htm

If one were to do a full analysis on all the devices over the years, and all the Input Coils, one would find very few turns and normally a heavier gauge wire.

### E.G:

• Don Smith used: 4 turns of perhaps No# 12 Insulated Wire.
• Akula used: 7 Turns of perhaps No# 18 Insulated Wire.
• And so on...

We also see this in our detailed study of the Asynchronous Re-Gauging, which we have proven to be valid on many devices:

As you can see, the Regauge Region is very much shorter in Time than the Work Region

An Input coil must be able to do its job quickly and efficiently, and the Time to do its job can be calculated by using:

### T = L / R

The Time Rate of Change is reduced by reducing the Inductance ( L ) and Resistance ( R ), shorter thicker wire means faster Rise Time. This makes your Regauge Region faster. This also means your Switching Time must be shorter, say 10% Duty Cycle.

Note: We have seen, history has shown us many examples, one must find the optimum point where the Rise time has done enough to allow the Partnered Output Coils to do enough Work, in other words: "Generate" enough Electrical Energy, to cover losses and enough to Power a Load.

One such example of this is the tuning required in the following video:

By turning on the English subtitles you will get somewhat of an explanation of the Timing required.

Another example is Bradley's RT, by attaching the Fan, slowing the Rotor and the Pulses, the machine was below unity. We must invoke the Partnered Output Coils interaction so as to:

Chris

Attached Files

cd_sharp posted this 18 July 2018

I always wondered if the time constant of a bifilar coil is lower than the equivalent of a classical one. I'll make an experiment. Very good info, Chris. Thanks!

"It's just the knowledge of the coils and how they interact with each other" (Steven Mark)

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Chris posted this 22 July 2018

Hey CD,

A Coil with 3 turns may have an Inductance of say: 20nH and say: 0.02Ω of Resistance.

So, according to our formula: τ = L/R we can calculate: τ = 0.000000020 / 0.02 = 0.000001 * 5 = 0.000005 seconds.

So, in 0.000005 seconds, the Current has reached Maximum value.

Similarly, τ = 0.16H / 0.8Ω = 0.2 * 5 = 1 seconds to build to maximum Current.

Remember, the faster the Rate of Change or the Magnetic Field, the Higher the Voltage will be.

Chris

Chris posted this 22 December 2018

My Friends,

The Input Coil is the start of an Avalanche Effect. But, the Input Coil is not the Source of access to the power of the Universe! It is only the catalyst.

At this stage, to be honest, all else is irrelevant, as our Two Partnered Output Coils MUST, React and Counter-React with each other.

One must be Opposite to the other according to Faradays Law of Electromagnetic Induction, this being observed as Lenz's Law! The Potential gained on the Terminals of the Coil and the Timed response of Drawing Current, at the same time as the opposite Coil being equal and opposite in the Potential domain, creates this:

The Linear decrease in Amplitude of the Potentials to Zero:

This response has cost us only a very small amount, the small but efficient timed pulse of the Input Coil to bring up the Potentials, is the first Action.

We have:

### Action, Reaction and Counter-Reaction.

So, the actual effect, Bucking Coils, is a critical objective, without it, we are just playing with Magnetic Fields. Something that those before us did also, until observing the key principles of Energy "Generation", being that of which is described above.

We have the opportunity to circumvent much of the random chance experiments, and have the specific, goal orientated conditions, for a working Energy Machine!

Of course efficiency is dependant on Magnetic Resonance which is specifically related to Antenna Theory, thought of in the following way:

Space has quiet zones through which energy glides virtually unreflected. There are also noisy zones where energy current becomes incoherent, bounces about and splits apart. Noisy zones in space have either rapidly changing geometry or rapidly changing impedance sqrt( μ / ε )

All it means is the Traversing of Current down the Coils with least possible Impedance.

The goal, the specific, required focus, is in the Bucking Coils, Partnered Output Coils.

Chris

Chris posted this 03 September 2019

My Friends,

We need to start thinking about our Input Coil!

What is the Input Coil actually doing in our System?

In The Mr Preva Experiment, we saw the need to find the Frequency of Magnetic Resonance where the two Coils were 180 Degrees out of phase.

Now an experiment:

Lets say we found this Frequency to be 73KHz, that means we need 73,000 of these:

per second!

If we are using a DC Pulsed System, most of us seem to be going this way, then we need to only think of exactly one half of the above Blue Cycle! Our DC Pulse must be short enough in time to match this Frequency!

• At 7,300 Hertz
• With a 10% Duty Cycle

Is the same as having Half Cycle Magnetic Resonance at 73,000 Hertz, for a DC Pulsed System.

Remember: We need the Off Time! This is seen below!

This will give us:

Where:

• Top Trace is the Input.
• Bottom Trace is the Output.

This means, we need to think about our Input Coil, it must be designed to be able to provide short sharp pulses efficiently. So a short length, thicker, with very low Duty Cycle.

In this Post, I posted this Image of Don Smith's Output Circuit, we all sould be familir with the Partnered Output Coils and how they work:

We just have to learn how to efficently bring them into Resonance!

Remember: Resonance means Maximum Amplitude for minimum Input and also the Power used will be the same if one uses a short sharp pulse over time or a long pulse over time through a higher resistance coil. The Mean power over time can be the same.

I hope this helps!

Chris

patrick1 posted this 04 September 2019

Haha Chris, you are definitely right about needing an offtime, - my home made, linear power supplies are going crazzy with resonance, - as soon as im getting massive light, - just before and after resonance, - and when it is in the zone, - my current jumps from 100ma, too off the 5amp scale...

hehe i am having fun, but not so much success, - i plan too focus on this mr preva experiment again,  and also i am testing delayed conduction methods with inline series MOV's and  mix'n'match diode juntions, with a back2back 12v zener and 1000v 10a10      ....      recently. my wave modulation attempts at making everything variable have not been so successful despite the complexity, - some of my best work ever, for sure, but i think this is a sign of me actaully starting too figure out what too aim for.

this is why my posts have been slow lately, - i don't want too look like im running out of puff, -but this approach is not so conducive of lots of experimentation

Chris posted this 05 January 2020

My Friends,

Those that are busy replication Asymmetrical Regauging, Please, lets bring some insight to this thread: The Input Coil.

Chris

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Chris posted this 03 February 2020

My Friends,

Just a friendly reminder, the Input Coil, the Frequency and Duty Cycle is important:

The input, how you drive your Partnered Output Coils is a bit of an Art-form in itself.

Best Wishes,

Chris

cd_sharp posted this 08 February 2020

Hi, everyone

Let's take a practical application! I have this 1/4 wavelength of the POCs:

It's around 4uS. This is the on-time. This means we can make a guess on the frequency we are looking for. Let's say we want to use a 10% duty cycle.

P x 1/10 = 4 x 10-6, where P is the period of the cycle in seconds

P = 4 x 10-5

And we know the frequency (f in Hz) is 1 / P.

f = 1 / 4 x 10-5 = 25000 Hz = 25 KHz.

We now have a starting point and we can fine tune. If we increase the frequency, we need to decrease the duty and the reverse in order to stay around 4uS on-time.

Please, correct me if you see something wrong!

EDIT: The calculation was correct, but I mistakenly added a "0" in the frequency calculation. Fixing it. The calculated frequency remains 25 KHz. Thanks, Chris for pointing it!

"It's just the knowledge of the coils and how they interact with each other" (Steven Mark)

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Chris posted this 08 February 2020

Hey CD,

I have not checked the math, but from what I see, it looks good!

Methods of increasing efficiency, increasing Amplitude of V and I without adversely affecting the Input. Using resonance is the best way forward. Because Amplitude is maximum when XC and XL are equal, which is Resonance, where XC and XL cancel and Impedance becomes only the DC Resistance of the Coils.

Remember what Floyd Sweet said:

Resonance frequencies may be maintained quite constant at high power levels so long as the load remains constant. We are all familiar with AM and FM propagation, where in the case as AM, the voltage amplitude varies, and with FM, the frequency is modulated.

However, the output power sees a constant load impedance, that of the matched antenna system. If this changes, the input to the antenna is mismatched, and standing waves are generated resulting in a loss of power.

We need to avoid the loss of Power, so Resonance is required! Or at least close to it!

I hope this helps! Your'e on the right track, have been for a long time now!

Chris

P.S: One microsecond is 1e-6 seconds? 250,000?

NOTE: Re-reading, this is confusing, a frequency of 5Khz with a Duty Cycle of 4μs is not the same as 250Khz. 5Khz @ 2% Duty Cycle gives an On-Time of 4μs approx. Your Input Coil has a Rise Time, the advantage is in the Rise time. The Rise Time needs to match your 4μs for an optimum switch.

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Vidura posted this 09 February 2020

Hey Friends, If we have a quarter wave time of 4us, this means the period of resonance is 16us. If we use a lower harmonic of this frequency it has to be in phase with the fundamental resonant frequency. The puls duration should be constant at 4us, and the off time has to been chosen such that the next puls matches with the rising sine wave at zero crossing. For example the time between the rising edge of consecutive pulses have to be always multiples of 16us for this coil frequency. Vidura.

Chris posted this 3 days ago

My Friends,

The Input Coil is a very important aspect to monitor!

I am showing this, under no Load Conditions, this is a simple Core, Coil and High Side Mosfet Switch, a similar circuit to this:

Where: R1 is the Input Coil instead.

We have covered before, the fact that the Input Coil sends Power Back to your Input! This is directly related to the Argand Diagram:

We can have Positive Voltage and Positive Current for Positive Power!

Inversely, we can have Positive Voltage and Negative Current, for Negative Power!

Here is an example:

Where:

• Purple Trace is the Math, showing Positive and Negative Power.
• Pink Trace is the Gate Signal to the Mosfet.
• Yellow is the Input Voltage.
• Teal Trace is the Input Current, both Positive and Negative.

I must apologise, I have better examples of this, but do not wish to confuse everyone. This example is sufficient to show what I am talking about.

Again, marked in Red, Positive Voltage and Negative Current, you have Negative Power. Not Negative Energy, Negative Power, I hope people do not confuse this as I believe people have in the past.

I hope this helps others when doing experiments, knowing what to look for is very important!

Remember: This is the very reason you can NOT Use RMS Measurements on the Input! See Measurements Thread and see the above Figures:

• Average: 95.7 mW
• RMS: 1.28 W

A Huge error here! 1.28 - 0.095 = 1.185 Watts. 13.474 times!

RMS is totally Wrong! Remember, your Zero Graticule Line is very important:

• above: Positive
• below: Negative

Its worth noting, there is 1.28 Watts in the System. An analogy, inaccurate as it stands, is, Power Delivered to the Coil might be in the order of 1.28 Watts. Then the Coil returns 1.28 - 0.095 = 1.185 Watts back to the Power Supply. So the Total Power used is only: 0.095 Watts. Power Returned, is not Power Used!

This is Reactive Power Conditions, except V and I are in apparent phase. We have 1.28 Watts of Work Done for the Cost of 0.095 Watts. I hope this makes sense? Please understand, the example is not giving accurate Power In and Out, only using figure seen in this Analogy for simplicity.

I believe, 1.28 - 0.095 / 2 = 0.5925, is the In and Out power. I am sure others here, perhaps YoElMiCrO, Jagau, Vidura, or someone can correct me here?

Meaning, the Power in Purple Above the Zero Graticule Line:

Is more than the Math in Purple Below the Zero Graticule line:

By: 0.095 Watts.

My Friends, if I have anything wrong here, please ensure you correct me.

Best wishes, stay safe and well My Friends,

Chris

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The great Nikola Tesla:

Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point of the universe. This idea is not novel. Men have been led to it long ago go by instinct or reason. It has been expressed in many ways, and in many places, in the history of old and new. We find it in the delightful myth of Antheus, who drives power from the earth; we find it among the subtle speculations of one of your splendid mathematicians, and in many hints and statements of thinkers of the present time. Throughout space there is energy. Is this energy static or kinetic? If static, our hopes are in vain; if kinetic - and this we know it is for certain - then it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature.

Experiments With Alternate Currents Of High Potential And High Frequency (February 1892).