Sndrfll's Experiments

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  • Last Post 18 August 2021
Sndrfll posted this 06 August 2021

Hi Community,
it took me quite some time to step forward and start sharing my experiments, so here we are laughing

 

Current Knowledge

The observations I provide are based on my current understanding and experiments. I don't have "the truth", but I'm in the search for it I want to focus on understanding and mastering the effects, measurements are in the second place.

Details

I'll try to be as precise as possible with details, so that you can replicate and proof if you like. I will answer to questions as best I can. I will provide part numbers and links to the equipment I use.

Focus

I will ask to stay focus on the experiments provided. If you have new ideas, please make a new Thread and provide a link to it. I will ask Chris to (re)move posts, which diverge peoples attention to get down the rabbit hole. I ask you to respect this  

 

Equipment

 

Experiments / Machines

 

Winding direction of coils

  • Depending on the winding direction of the coils the magnetic flux is oriented in different directions.
  • The dottet line means the wire is "running behind the core".
  • If you want to make the fields oppose use the right hand grip rule to find out the direction of the magnetic flux.

Coil-Winding-Current-Flow_LR

To check magnet flux orientation use an LC-meter and connect the two coils in series.

  1. The configuration with the lower inductance (L1-L2) means opposing fields (Reduced impedance?).
  2. The configuration with higher inductance (L1+L2) means adding fields.

WARNING: Keep in mind that the magnetic flux in a loop core (CC or toroidal) core is the opposite on the two "sides" of the core. So if your coils are on opposite sides, make a drawing of the magnetic flux to visualize better.

 

MrPreva Experiment

MrPreva-Bench-1_LR

MrPreva-Core-1_LR

Lower inductance of SHORT coil allows for quicker (time) current to flow through coil VS LONG coil.


MrPreva-Core-2_LR

Driving SHORT coil and checking generated (EMF) output voltage on the LONG coil.


MrPreva-1_LR

SHORT (L-LOW) coil induces voltage (EMF) in LONG (L-HIGH) coil. Current in LONG coil adds to current in SHORT coil.


MrPreva-2_LR

MrPreva-3_LR

Signal generator input (DC pulse to gate driver @20 Hz, variing the length of the pulse). Pulse must be long enough to observe different phases of coil interaction (in this case > 2ms). 

Starting using low frequency to not damage MOSFET.

Placing different diode combinations on low voltage (MOSFET Drain) side between coils.

Current adding behavior marked in diagramms.

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Sndrfll posted this 06 August 2021

MrPreva Experiment with diodes

Replicating Chris' variant of the MrPreva circuit with diodes on both coils.

Observed important aspects:

  • Coils in magnetic flux bucking mode
  • power supply on SHORT coil (with low inductance) NOT LONG coil
  • Direction of diodes is crucial

 

Bench

MrPreva-Bench-2_LR

MrPreva-Bench-3_LR

 

Circuit

MrPreva-4_LR

 

Scope traces

  1. L(ONG CUR) / Yellow = Current (1 Ohm) in LONG coil
  2. S(HORT CUR) / Magenta = Current (1 Ohm) in SHORT coil
  3. IN (CUR) / Cyan = Current (0.05 Ohm) through MOSFET
  4. V(OLT) / Blue = Voltage over capacitor

 


MrPreva-Scope-Long_LR


Much to long pulse


MrPreva-Scope-4_LR

MrPreva-Scope-1_LR

MrPreva-Scope-2_LR

MrPreva-Scope-3_LR

MrPreva-Scope-5_LR

Shorter pulses with different frequency and duty cycle

higher voltage leads to exponential distortion, no more linear decay of current

  1. SHORT coil conducting during MOSFET ON time (LONG coil assisting ??? not sure frown)
  2. LONG coil conducting during MOSFET OFF time, linear decay of current, correct sawtooth waveform?

 

  What about resonance of coils?

Chris posted this 07 August 2021

Hi Sndrfll,

This is great work! Congratulations!

Re your Questions:

Shorter pulses with different frequency and duty cycle

higher voltage leads to exponential distortion, no more linear decay of current

  1. SHORT coil conducting during MOSFET ON time (LONG coil assisting ??? not sure frown)
  2. LONG coil conducting during MOSFET OFF time, linear decay of current, correct sawtooth waveform?

 

  What about resonance of coils?

 

Yes this all makes a difference! Normally, the  Input Coil is 1/4 Wavelength of the POC, so Partnered Output Coils might be resonant at 65Khz, then the Input Coil will be 0.25 x the Wire Length, and its frequency will be 1/4 wavelength of 65khz, or 65khz x 4 = 260khz, sometime's 4x the Wire Gauge also, and of course the Input Coil is just a quarter wave pulse.

The Input Coil brings the POC into Resonance, and at Resonance, we get maximum Voltage, Current and Magnetic Field Interactions:

 

Where the Amplitude of the ends of L, represent the total Difference in Voltage Potential in Time t, are at maximum through time when your Wave Resonance is at maximum. Your POC are Half Wavelength, or a Dipole Antenna in Resonance. This uses the Near Field, and standard well known Wave Propagation. This creates the Magnetic Opposition, B1 + B2 = 0, and the Current is a Standing Wave of 2x the Potential.

POCOne Transmits:

 

POCTwo Receives:

 

and POCTwo's Magnetic Field Amplitude gives the Input Reduction for the same Output.

We need to have 180 Degrees of Phase Shift between POCOne and POCTwo, thus Bucking Coils, and this, as you point out, POCTwo assists your Input Coil, lowering the Input by an order of Magnitude!

We end up with this situation:

 

This is one example:

Don Smith told us:

 

The correct Wave Pattern has been obtained:

 

Tuning is the path forward now!

Design Parameters limit your device, but the Input is reduced by how well you make your choices and the more you reduce your Input, for the same Output, the more Above Unity you get!

Best Wishes,

   Chris

P.S: Very nice documentation, nice to see thank you for posting these posts!

baerndorfer posted this 07 August 2021

thank you for explaining in great detail!

i am still struggling with understanding your very first image. i can see different windings but all have the same magnetic vector B.

what a great post!

regards!

Sndrfll posted this 08 August 2021

Hi Baerndorfer, thank you for your question.

I illustrated the "right hand rule for coils", showing the relationship between different winding directions, current flow in the coil and magnetic flux / vector.

You see the difference on the right coil (1. CW and 2. CCW).

To have the magnetic vector (magnetic flux) oppose in each case the currents must "be allowed" to flow in different directions, see the orange arrows on the bottom of the coils. (Shitty watermark, sorry for that surprised)

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Sndrfll posted this 08 August 2021

Hi Chris,

thank you for you comprehensive answer and inspiration.

Often when you get one answer you find two more questions

  1. Is it easier to learn with a machine with 3 separate coils (Input, POCONE, POCTWO) or is it better to continue with the MrPreva style transformer where you have a SHORT coil and a LONG coil ("representing" two more coils)?
  2. You mention design based limitations. Which could be next steps to change?
  3. If I understand correct the core cross-section area plays a role. Will this small ferrite core be sufficient for education purpose and observing effects?

Regarding resonance between the coils I'm making "little steps for little feet"

My first try listed in the next post was not insightful.

Maybe there are some more concrete puzzle pieces

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Sndrfll posted this 08 August 2021

AirCore - Self-Resonant Driver

  • using the inverting MosFET driver TC4429 to drive an air core coil in λ/4 (1/4 of full wave length) "4er-wave resonance"
  • coil output is feed back to inverting input capacitive decoupled
  • variable trimmer capacitor tuned to minimal capacity
  • push to close button shorting capacitor to retrigger, in case of "hang up"
  • ADVICE works stable till ~ <9V input voltage

 

Bench

AirCoreCoil-Driver-Bench_LR

 

Circuit

AirCoreCoil-Driver_LR

 

AirCore - λ/4 resonance electric and magnetic fields

  • Measuring distribution and amplitude of electric and magnetic field around air core coil in λ/4 "4er wave resonance"

AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields/AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields-Bench-Overview-1

 

Tools

AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields/AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields-Bench-MagnetCoil

Small inductor (~20µH) in closed loop to measure magnetic field

AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields/AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields-Bench-Probes

  • Fast (~300 Mhz) 1N4148 full bridge rectifier or halfbridge rectifier with led to measure power and grounding effects "wishing rod".

AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields/AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields-Bench-AvramencoPlug

AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields/AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields-Probes-3

 

Bench

  • AirCore coil 0.75mm 55mm ⌀ - ~ 62 Turns ~ 104µH
  • Credits to Rick Friedrich and BrunoVK

AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields/AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields-Bench-Coil

AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields/AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields-Bench-1

  • Moving electric and magnetic field probe up and down along the coil

AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields/AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields-Bench-2

  • electric field probe galvanically isolated through enamelled copper wire, to not influence (lower) air core resonant frequency via probe capacity (~ 5-60pF)
  • magnetic field probe closed loop on sense coil with scope ground to enable current flow

AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields/AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields-Probes-2

 

Traces

  • E(lectric field) / Yellow = Voltage around coil
  • M(agnetic Field) / Magenta = Voltage over sense coil
  • IN (Voltage) / Cyan = input voltage from signal generator

AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields-1_LR


  • electric and magnetic field in of phase

AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields-2-Magnet-InPhase_LR


  • center of the coil: no magnetic field "bloch wall"

AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields-3-Magnet-Center_LR


  • electric and magnetic field 180° out of phase

AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields-Magnet-OutPhase_LR

 

Insights

  • electric field amplitude rises towards "open end"
  • magnetic field amplitude minimum at coil center
  • magnetic field polarity opposite at coil top and coil bottom (depending on sense coil winding direction)

AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields/AirCoreCoil-ElectricMagneticFields-1

 

Core self capacity ?

  • a ferrite core is galvanic not conductive
  • But does a (ferrite) core has a "capacity" itself?
  • can the capacity be "charged" by the "near field" emissions of the coils?

MrPreva/MrPreva-Resonance-Bench-FerriteCore-Capacity

  • galvanic connection of fast full bridge rectifier (~ 300MHz ~ 2pF)
  • with led "wishing rod" with air ground and scope ground
  • while coil is 4er wave resonant

MrPreva/MrPreva-Resonance-Bench-FerriteCore-Grounds


 

MrPreva - Input (SHORT) coil duty cycle

MrPreva/MrPreva-4

 

Scope traces

  • L(ONG CUR) / Yellow = Current (1 Ohm) in LONG coil
  • S(HORT CUR) / Magenta = Current (1 Ohm) in SHORT coil
  • IN (CUR) / Cyan = Current (0.05 Ohm) through MOSFET

  • Increasing duty cycle too much leads to current flow after in OFF-time, after MOSFET turn off.
  • Because of core saturation?

MrPreva/MrPreva-InCurrent-DutyCycle-1

MrPreva/MrPreva-InCurrent-DutyCycle-2

MrPreva/MrPreva-InCurrent-DutyCycle-3

MrPreva/MrPreva-InCurrent-DutyCycle-4

 

MrPreva - λ/4 Resonance

MrPreva/MrPreva-Resonance-1

Measuring the λ/4 "4er wave resonance" voltage maximum of SHORT and LONG coil:

  • SHORT: ~ 226 kHz
  • LONG: ~ 124 kHz
  • SHORT to LONG (max. voltage): ~ 180 kHz

MrPreva/MrPreva-Resonance-Bench-Long

 

Scope traces

  • SHORT Voltage / Yellow = Voltage on end of SHORT coil
  • LONG Voltage / Magenta = Voltage on end of LONG coil
  • INput Voltage / Cyan = Voltage from signal generator on feed point

 

MrPreva/MrPreva-Resonance-Short

MrPreva/MrPreva-Resonance-Long

Measuring the λ/4 "4er wave resonance" voltage maximum of SHORT to LONG coil:

  • SHORT to LONG (max. voltage): ~ 180 kHz

MrPreva/MrPreva-Resonance-Bench-ShortToLong

  • too low

MrPreva/MrPreva-ResonanceTransferShortToLong-Lower

  • Center

MrPreva/MrPreva-ResonanceTransferShortToLong-Center

  • too high

MrPreva/MrPreva-ResonanceTransferShortToLong-Higher


Driving the SHORT coil with different λ/4 resonant frequencies:

  1. LONG: ~ 124 kHz
  2. SHORT to LONG (max. voltage): ~ 180 kHz
  3. SHORT: ~ 226 kHz

MrPreva/MrPreva-Frequency-Long

MrPreva/MrPreva-Frequency-VoltageMaxTransfer

MrPreva/MrPreva-Frequency-Short

 

Questions

MrPreva/MrPreva-Resonance-1

  1. Does a (ferrite) core has a "capacity" itself?
  2. Can the capacity be "charged" by the "nearfield" emissions of the coils?
  3. Can the circuit be modelled as two (series or parallel) LC-circuits sharing a capacity between both?
  4. Is the inductance of the SHORT coil (wound on top of LONG coil) so much lower because it is "further away" from the ferrite core?
  5. Is 4er wave resonance the resonance to look for or?
  6. Which coil (SHORT, LONG) in this setup should be in which resonance?
  7. Is this coil setup able to provide the effects of magnetic resonance?

 

Feel free to give ideas and suggestions, those how know and have a grin in their face

Chris posted this 08 August 2021

 

Hi Chris,

thank you for you comprehensive answer and inspiration.

Often when you get one answer you find two more questions

 

Hi Sndrfll,

Please understand, I also am still learning, some Answers I still do not have myself. I will always do the best I can to help!

Yes there are always more questions, I have had many, in time the Questions gain Answers, but it takes some understanding.

  1. Is it easier to learn with a machine with 3 separate coils (Input, POCONE, POCTWO) or is it better to continue with the MrPreva style transformer where you have a SHORT coil and a LONG coil ("representing" two more coils)?

 

In my opinion, Yes. I find it easier to break the problem down to the most basic form. Diakoptics, a concept credited to the great Gabriel Kron, Floyd Sweets Mentor. Observing "Function" of each Coil Individually, and then as a whole, is a lot easier to put the full picture together.

  • You mention design based limitations. Which could be next steps to change?

 

Yes, Design Limitations, this topic is vast and can get somewhat involved. Again keeping this topic Simple is important to gaining a good strong path forward.

Yes Cross Sectional Area ( CSA ) is important. As is Flux Density, Gauss is assiciated with Amperes per meter.

  • If I understand correct the core cross-section area plays a role. Will this small ferrite core be sufficient for education purpose and observing effects?

Regarding resonance between the coils I'm making "little steps for little feet"

My first try listed in the next post was not insightful.

Maybe there are some more concrete puzzle pieces

 

The key is Simplicity and Antenna Theory. Get your Output Voltage up, and with Bucking Magnetic Fields, Current is also Amplified, weather Science likes it or not, Power, or Energy, can be Extracted from Source, simply by Extracting Energy Initially.

 

One Ampere is defined, Current Meters are Calibrated to measure:

6,241,509,074,460,760,000 elementary charges per second

 

We all know, the Elementary Charge is the Electron, and all Electrons come from the Atom. Specifically the Copper ( Cu ) Atom when one is dealing with Copper Wire. Magnetic Fields make the Electrons Move, or Accelerate them down the Wire.

We have No Secrets, all information has been shared openly. We have Open Sourced what we are working on so anyone can do it. Understanding is a very important aspect also! Once one gains this required Understanding, then these machines are very easy to build! One can NOT over complicate this, or it does not work, it becomes messy and everyone fails! This must be kept Simple! It truly is not complex, it is very Simple!

Youre doing a great job! Thank You for sharing! We will help others that show that they are helping themselves! You have shown this! Please, keep in mind, keep it simple. Nothing here is complicated.

We need 180 Degrees between each Coil: Input to POCOne = 180 Degrees, POCOne to POCTwo = 180 Degrees. This means, 180 + 180 = 360, and POCTwo must assist, be In Phase with, your Input Coil!

 

If your Input Coil and POCOne are 70% efficient, Transformer efficiency, and POCTwo adds 50% Energy to your System, then you might get Above Unity of 120%.

Much better results are possible, I am giving a low value, so as to not initial expectations too high. "Little Stëps for Little Feet" as you say.

Best Wishes,

   Chris

Sndrfll posted this 17 August 2021

I try to come back to my current point of understanding and reseach:

  1. Does a (ferrite) core has a "capacity" itself?
  2. Can the capacity be "charged" by the "nearfield" emissions of the coils?
  3. Can the circuit be modelled as two (series or parallel) LC-circuits sharing a capacity between both?
  4. Is the inductance of the SHORT coil (wound on top of LONG coil) so much lower because it is "further away" from the ferrite core?
  5. Is 4er wave resonance the resonance to look for or?
  6. Which coil (SHORT, LONG) in this setup should be in which resonance?
  7. Is this coil setup able to provide the effects of magnetic resonance?

Or are these questions irrelevant for understanding?

Melendor posted this 17 August 2021

Hello Sndrfll.

I have talked to Mr.Preva...and the things that he said...I find it very strange...

He said you do not need resonance in his setup.
He said that the coils are Bifilar wound...and not one on top another.
He said that the short coil - long coil is random...and ideal you must have equal coil lenght.

I have around 50 transformers at home...Isolation transformers (1:1 ) ,step up..step down..etc.

The current does not magically double.
I don't have 1 single transformer where the Amps  double....and I have tried a lot.

It is as Chris said....and as you see in Mr Preva video ( the sinewave )
You see those sinewaves 180 out of phase . That is MAGNETIC RESONANCE.

The Capacitor you see in Mr Preva experiment is to bring the coils into resonance.

I really do not understand why he is backing up now , and trying to hide the real deal behind his experiment. (Mr. Preva)

In your setup you must try to find the frequency at which your coils resonate.
You must not guess it..you must find it.
Find the FUNDAMENTAL Freq ...( Maximum Amplitude of Voltage )

I wish you best of luck.
*Melendor the wizard

Chris posted this 17 August 2021

Hi Sndrfll,

All Questions are important! I have tried to answer as much questions here in these pages prior to these Questions coming to fruition in Active Researchers Minds, A Pre-Emptive Approach...

I try to come back to my current point of understanding and reseach:

  1. Does a (ferrite) core has a "capacity" itself?

 

Yes I also believe Partnered Output Coils have a "Capacity" of sorts. I am unable to nail this down and fully understand this! I believe this has something to do with the Magnetic Field Directly and the fact that Partnered Output Coils oppose each other, in other words Opposite Polarities. Wish I could give you a better answer, I just do not yet understand this enough.

 

  • Can the capacity be "charged" by the "nearfield" emissions of the coils?

 

I believe yes, B Field Change, does seem to affect this "Capacity".

 

  • Can the circuit be modelled as two (series or parallel) LC-circuits sharing a capacity between both?

 

All simulations I have tried result in failure...

 

  • Is the inductance of the SHORT coil (wound on top of LONG coil) so much lower because it is "further away" from the ferrite core?

 

The Inductance changes with Magnetic Field, but this is an area that needs attention and study.

 

  • Is 4er wave resonance the resonance to look for or?

 

Sorry, to this question, I can not give a precise answer. Between POCOne and POCTwo, I believe this Resonance, or Harmonic, should be seen but because I do not have a Scope that does Transforms, I have not seen or measured this.

 

  • Which coil (SHORT, LONG) in this setup should be in which resonance?

 

Both Coils need to be in Magnetic Resonance, 180 Degrees out of phase. This is Magnetic Resonance.

 

  • Is this coil setup able to provide the effects of magnetic resonance?

Or are these questions irrelevant for understanding?

 

Yes, All Coils can show Magnetic Resonance, the Mr Preva Experiment shows Magnetic Resonance. When tuned to Resonance. This is each Coil being 180 Degrees out of Phase, full Magnetic Opposition equal in magnitude, opposite in Polarity.

Again, no questions irrelevant, we all have questions, and we all process differently, study and close observation will give answers, but I will help where I can! I still have Questions, waiting for answers, sometimes they come weeks later or more...

I hope this helps some!

Best Wishes,

   Chris

 

P.S: We highly recommend the use of Precision Resistors for measuring Current, CSR or CVR, this will be the best investment you ever did, those Wire Wound Resistors will have a lot of Noise.

Sndrfll posted this 17 August 2021

Hi Chris, thank you for the quick and focussed answers
I already have a new experiment to set up and of course some new questions to think about

I have these resistors available: Current sensing resistor (CSR): [Constantan 50mR / 0.05 Ohm].

2 of them in series = 0.1 Ohm would be fine I guess?

 

When you mention the coils being 180° degrees out of phase I have 2 questions to understand this words:

  1. Coils being 180° out phase means the current flowing trough them and thus the magnetic field is 180° out of phase, right?
  2. Usually using phase angles like 180° refers to a sinusoidal / exoponential waveform, but I understood to look out for a saw tooth waveform.
    So 180° out of phase for a sawtooth waveform means 2 sawtooth waveform, one in each POC with but with opposite polarity so that the magnetic field oppose?
  3. Or is the sawtooth waveform only in POC One or Two?

 

Is it more advantageous for beginners to build a machine with

   a) a "closed" magnetic loop - like for example the nano cristaline AMC cores with CC configuration

   b) an "open" magnetic loop - like a pot core with spacers (Andrey Melnichenko) or like Captain Loz Ferrite Tube or like Don Smith famous with the split POC secondary

 

Best wishes and a good day
Sndrfll

Chris posted this 18 August 2021

Hey Sndrfll,

Please Note: Most of these questions are already answered here on this forum.

Replies posted below:

Hi Chris, thank you for the quick and focussed answers
I already have a new experiment to set up and of course some new questions to think about

I have these resistors available: Current sensing resistor (CSR): [Constantan 50mR / 0.05 Ohm].

2 of them in series = 0.1 Ohm would be fine I guess?

 

Carefully and wisely selecting a CSR is a very important task! This can save a lot of time and effort if one takes the time to do this up front. One will need a good quality Precision Resistor, I recomment 0.1 Ohms, ±1% Tollerance, 5 Watts or more. This step is really important! Monitoring Currents carefully is important to observe whats occuring in your machine!

Your SPECS:

 

When you mention the coils being 180° degrees out of phase I have 2 questions to understand this words:

  1. Coils being 180° out phase means the current flowing trough them and thus the magnetic field is 180° out of phase, right?

 

Yes you have this right, Equal in Magnitude ( M.M.F ) and Opposite in Phase.

 

  • Usually using phase angles like 180° refers to a sinusoidal / exoponential waveform, but I understood to look out for a saw tooth waveform.
    So 180° out of phase for a sawtooth waveform means 2 sawtooth waveform, one in each POC with but with opposite polarity so that the magnetic field oppose?

 

Yes, I realise this, we have seen this, in The Mr Preva Experiment! Coils being 180° out phasem a Sinusoidal Waveform, and we could tune for the ideal Phase Shift.

One can also see this in the setup I have shared, in a Sawtooth Waveform, but not so pronounced. You will get the idea with more experience, just keep in mind: Equal in Magnitude ( M.M.F ) and Opposite in Phase. This is Magnetic Resonance.

 

  • Or is the sawtooth waveform only in POC One or Two?

 

You will see when you start experimenting. Both Coils have the same type of Waveform, it can vary some, but its there. This can change with Tuning and adjustment, Just keep in mind: Equal in Magnitude ( M.M.F ) and Opposite in Phase. This is Magnetic Resonance.

 

Is it more advantageous for beginners to build a machine with

   a) a "closed" magnetic loop - like for example the nano cristaline AMC cores with CC configuration

   b) an "open" magnetic loop - like a pot core with spacers (Andrey Melnichenko) or like Captain Loz Ferrite Tube or like Don Smith famous with the split POC secondary

 

Air Coes I have had no luck with! Not yet anyway. Use any Core you like, its easy to see results, but one will need a reasonable CSA to get voltage up. Some Cores are Slugs, do not move very well, I prefer Metglas, but its not necessary! There is NOTHING Magic to this, nothing that is special! Just knowing basic Path Forward is important.

I ask you to do some more reading on other threads, as I just do not have time to reply with the same answers all the time, its all been posted here already in many threads carefully designed to prempt Answers to Questions that arrise. Its all here.

Focus on the Cu Atom Electrons and making them Move down the Wire. Bucking Coils do this. wink

Best Wishes,

Chris

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