Ruslan Generator Theory of Operation CAE and Development Aid Add On

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solarlab posted this 04 January 2019

A very good CAE style video presentation link and a possible development aid (add-on) paper [zip] can be found in a post located here:

NOTE: Unfortunately the post link below was removed [hi-jacked ?] from the original forum thread; as were many other posts. Rather than attempt to "fix" these problems, another approach to presenting information is being explored (publish only in credible forums and periodicals). Edit: 20 May 2019.

Also included in the text is a link to 31 Ruslan demonstration videos.

Some advanced developers may find the material interesting and valuable.

Unfortunately this site does not accommodate file attachments over 2MB or the "USING THE INVERTER SECTION OF A DUAL FUEL INTERNAL COMBUSTION INVERTER/GENERATOR WITH A RUSLAN TYPE ELECTRONIC EXCESS ENERGY PRODUCTION SCHEME" zip or rar file would have been attached in this post.

Good luck in your work and have a great day!


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solarlab posted this 04 January 2019

Some "free tools" you might find useful when working with YouTube videos and other files:

Youtube-DLG - this program will directly download videos with a translation subtitle enbeded. You must set your language first, along with some other parameters, in the settings.     {then Clone or download (right hand side)}

VLC Player - a video player that will allow you to slow down the video (read subtitles easier). You must select "subtitle" in the menu bar or in settings | subtitles | select "all" for default subtitle on.

ImageGlass - allows you to view and size many picture formats. For example: in the " How does the installation of Ruslan Kulabukhov 2018 Part 2" video page [found in the above post] there is a file called "Final.jpg" (screen view of video CAE). To zoom in on the text use ImageGlass and "screen width," etc.

InfanView - a more sophisticated and powerful general file, video, etc. program.

Also, a good site for some theories with "interactive parameter graphics displays" as well (e.g. Coil Standing and Travelling Wave power) examples. Site translation is also included (upper right hand flags).

Appologies if some of this has already been provided elsewhere.

Chris posted this 04 January 2019

Great job on sharing Solarlab!

From what I can see, and I have not spent a lot of time reviewing the material, but it looks to be spot on!

Excellent job!


solarlab posted this 05 January 2019

Thanks Chris... You might appreciate the first paper referenced in this attachment brief:

By Professor E. G. CULLWICK, O.B.E., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.E., Member.

Attached brief:



Attached Files

solarlab posted this 05 January 2019

Hi Chris,

Is there any way I can contribute such that the download file size limit can be increased?

Please let me know.  Thanks. SL


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Chris posted this 06 January 2019

Hey Solarlab,

Thanks for the offer. I have a few problems with Files. The transfer of large files restricts site performance. I need site performance.

However, I have increased the file size from just over 5mb to 10mb. This is a more realistic size.

Let me know if this is not enough, I am happy to increase a little more if required.


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solarlab posted this 06 January 2019

Thank You Chris,

Ten (10) mb should be more than adequate; I fully concure, site performance above all.
BTW, just read your latest version of "Guidelines to Bucking Coils V2.7;" excellent, very informative!

Have a great day! smile


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Chris posted this 06 January 2019

Hey Solarlab,

Cool, 10Mb.

V2.7 is old now. I should update it. I have learnt a lot more since then.


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alohalaoha posted this 06 January 2019

Hey Solarlab and Happy New Year

I am think you are on the right track !






solarlab posted this 07 January 2019

Hi Aloha,

Happy New Year!

Your question as to "What has changed in intrinsic electron structure?" unfortunately I don't have a definitive answer for. That answer, if it could be varified by experiment, would probably be Nobel material. But we can always ponder and study.

A real short (cheat) answer, from an engineering prospective, might be "increase the potential difference [add HV pulses] within the system." This appears to what has been done in Ruslan's and others early (2015) devices.

Over the years my leaning has been towards thinking that Dirac's work in the 1930's is more believable, to me at least, and holds the most promise in describing a viable electron structure and interaction.

One long term project I would like to complete someday is integrating the Dirac and Maxwell equations such that modern CAE software (Comsol Multiphysics in particular) had the capability to work in both positive and negative energies (Dirac). There is light however, since I recently read a paper where apparently this has been accomplished.

There are several papers attached relating to Dirac and one that describes a late 1990's project called Genesis. A long while back but it did strike my interest. Also, I am actively working on Comsol analysis of coils and high voltage interaction. So far so good but still a long way to go!



Attached Files

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solarlab posted this 17 January 2019

With respect to "How might High Voltge Pulses be used to increase current flow" question. You may find the attached papers to be quite interesting and thought provoking. Experimenting as well as varification should not be too difficult.

About mid 1999 a postulation was developed known as "The GENESIS PROJECT." It posed an interesting view of positive and negative energy flow and followed Dirac's approach to an extent with an extended feature of adding high voltage around a coil.

The only two surviving papers, to the best of my knowledge, are attached.

Links to the papers are:
Original paper March 1999: 
Revised edition:

Ergo; an interest in integrating Maxwell's and Dirac's equations and ultimately developing a CAE analysis/proof of the Ruslan generator device operation theory.

The Genesis Project 'may' tie well into explaining the Tesla Transformer part of the attached schematics which are a part of the previous video cited by Steven Marks, a.k.a Absolut. Use of the term "non inductive" in the paper, I believe, would also describe a coil's Bi-Filar effect.


Attached Files

alohalaoha posted this 18 January 2019

Hey SolarLab

As an experienced EE and follower of P.Dirac you probably well know what did he said about General Theory of Relativity

Quote him

"The main equations of modern quantum electrodynamics are incorrect." P. Dirac



About "Genesis" project i have stopped reading further after 3rd page where i have found this:

"The above is a new interpretation (genesis project) based on the general principle of relativity about a
conduction current, a magnetic field and an induced electric field."

If you are really searching for the RIGHT TRACK in infinite abyss of lies i can help you , simply pointing you in a truthful direction.

Start research about, particle mass, particle kinetic energy and inertial forces. !!



alohalaoha posted this 18 January 2019

About one of main misconception in modern relaitvity "science".

SolarLab - do you ready to take a look in the eyes of the TRUTH ?

Belive or not, know or not but - in modern Main Stream Physics everything was based on policy.

How had started ?

The Danish theorist Lorentz can from boredom, and can out of boredom, set for himself such ridiculous task: "What happens to Maxwell's equations if to place them in the moving system of coordinates?"

Does there will be they invariable (invariant) or will change?

He thought up the known transformations which were wrong, and showed with their help the invariance of the equations of Maxwell in the moving system of coordinates. Soon these transformations from Lorentz were bought by the WallStreet, Zurich and London bankers, and they entered as a fundamental factor, in the "theory of relativity" of Einstein in a year published in the German scientific magazine "Annalen der Physik".

So the world learned that Einstein is not a small clerk in patent office of Geneva, and the great Jewish physicist and greatest mankind physicist. And Maxwell's equations were after Lorentz it seems objective check of correctness of transformations of Lorentz. Here and everything as it appeared, a detective story with humour of the electrodynamic equations of Maxwell. All business appeared not in Maxwell and even not in Lorentz, and in the Trojan Horse in the jewish physicist Einstein who was filled from the head to a tail by one policy formulated by the called Jewish banksters. And Europe went for this monetaristic zhupel again, taking away science and the people from Truth light to the swamp of obscurantism and fascism.

And where is humour —  you could ask?

Here everyone has to think and, it is possible that depending on man's personal outlook the humour will appear in different color.

I do not want to expatiate on this collective work XIX of Europe and the beginning of the 20th centuries more. Maxwell of these equations composed twenty pieces and soon died.

Then there were well-wishers and began to canonize them. Activists in this process were Hevisayd and Hertz. They long were called Hevisayd's equations — German Hertz until Jew Einstein did not became "the greatest physicist - again Jewish".

From its instruction appropriated to these equations a name of Maxwell again. And all archaisms in them remained. Including one famous that magnetic field has no mass!!. In reallity Magnetic Force Field could be so huge, while in the same time, magnetic carriers of these forces has no mass at all.

Unless is it not a humour ?

Besides in the modern relativity books on physics is written that magnetic field has no mass. Precisely Maxwell's hypothesis repeats divB=0 !

and, of course, not withouth instructions of "greatest physicist" ever.

Here also it turns out, as money of the WallStreet , Zurich and London bankers is valid and, of course, has also mass (weight). While with a mass of magnetic field - there is a crunch.

The Truth is come to the rescue by skilled material from the reference book
Grigoriev I.S and Melihov E.Z. - Physical quantities: Reference book. by: Energoizdat 1991 USSR.

In this reference book the dependence of specific resistance of tungsten against the magnitude of cross-sectional magnetic field is given or ρ = f(B)

It is established fact that change B from 102 T(Tesla) to 105 T, ρ increases more than by 7 orders (10 million times - look at the Chart of the Colour) [6, page. 748, fig. 30.24].

Question is what happens to tungsten if his electrical resistance becomes almost like ceramics influented by giant magnetic field ?

If Magnetic filed has no mass, who did this with tungsten - Evil Spirit maybe ?


SolarLab - keep in mind that, this is not exclusieve example.!!!

Those experimetal facts were gathered on several thousands !!!

Best regards

solarlab posted this 18 January 2019

Hi Aloha,

A quick question for you - maybe a long and twisted answer, but let me ask anyway.
As a follower of Dirac and, I suspect, familiar with Maxwell:

Do you have any ideas or specific suggestions regarding how best to integrate Dirac's equation (positron - negatron energy states; an equation with two or four possible answers), with the Maxwell equations?


Also, I try not to discount any theoretical approaches to physics or engineering. Some theories sometimes work better than others with respect to the problem being solved.

For a simple example; Ohms law is good for determining the bias current/voltage for a switching diode even at 4GHz (Kirchoff) but the directional coupler part of the device requires a distributed electromagnetic approach (lines and waves); whereas an optical style (ray trace) approach might be used to analyze the horn and parabolic reflector part of the system. The same applies, in my opinion, to relativity and the other various theories. We don't as yet have the Golden combined "theory of everything." Although I do agree Dirac may have come the closest to it!

The primary point of the "Genesis Project" is simply an approach in explaining that by subjecting the bi-filar coil to an external high voltage (potential) influence, the coil may exhibit a change in characteristics; e.g. negative inductance - no inductance - positive inductance.

This may or may not be the theory of "why" this happens but it has little to do with the General Theory of Relativity, in my opinion, mearly a way of trying to explain the experimental results.

Your comment about "research particle mass, etc.," as I explained above - I try to consider all theoretical approaches. No "one size" approach fits all! It would be very myopic (and detrimental) to do otherwise. The rest of your post is mear history and conjecture, so it goes into the round bin as far as I'm concerned.

Particle Theory versus Wave Theory debate will rage on for many many years I' sure, as will conventional versus relativity - but it's a stupid debate with little to be gained in the end.

Use whatever theory gets the job done, and allows you to move forward - that's what real engineers and physicists do. Leave the debate to the academics - since, as useful as it may be, they are generally capable of little else.

Of course all of the above is just My Humble Opinion.



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alohalaoha posted this 18 January 2019

Hey SolarLab

I have no idea about your plan to mix UNMIXABLE stuff - like proved Particle Kinematic Theory against unprovable Einstain&Main Stream "science" Wave Theory !

If you want to make complete new theory maybe i can help you somehow. My personal oppinion is for begining you can try to replicate simple Mr.Preva experiment according to Chris instructions.

Another suggestion you can do with easy - make experiments with isolated charges (both signs) against influence of stationary magnetic field of any neodymium-iron-boron magnet.

I guess you have all needed equipment to make professional job here ?

ps: Answer to your question is yes, but much better i think is making mentioned experiments as a master judge of any theory !





solarlab posted this 18 January 2019


This link may help explain the desire to mix Dirac and Maxwell. This is just one of many but it accents the idea:

Many experiments have been done, including Preva, however the focus is developing a theoretical understanding so that Comsol Multiphysics or similar software can be used to analyze and optimize the related devices.

This is why I posted in the "Theory" section of this forum. My interest at the moment is not any specific experiments but rather attempting to use CAE to characterize a Ruslan or similar device. We have proved they work but are still not able to fully explain and varify why, using technical science. Without the math we will continue to go in circles.

We use Maxwell in our software analysis on an almost continual basis to solve and optimize our electromagnetic problems but it has difficulty yielding any hint of excess energy. Dirac on the other hand appears to open the door to infinite excess energy.

Combine the two and we might possibly have the key to EM analysis with the probability of excess energy optimization! A worthy persuit?



solarlab posted this 20 January 2019

This thesis points out an experimental approach to coil analysis and touches on computer aided engineering at the end.

Although their objective is to examine insulation failure in transformers; it has some good introduction information regarding transients (high voltage spikes and waveforms), resonances within the coil windings and several measurement techniques. The author also discusses relationships with respect to standing and traveling waves in the coil. Link:


Review the paper while keeping in mind his objective is to investigate harmful transients and mitigate excess energy, whereas our objective is to instigate transients and promote excess energy. Generally note that many papers are like this - what they try to avoid, we try to create!


Reading between the lines, so to speak, it appears that a 'continual' introduction of transients within a coil by certain 'waveform shapes' does indeed cause excess energy and thus transformer insulation failure. But the process is complex to describe technically and even more so to design, control and sustain.

A long read, however contains some good information.


BTW; Here's a Vector Network Analyzer that covers 1Hz to 50MHz (a bit pricey - about $5K US or so) but it works really well. Low frequency coverage, quality, VNAs used to be rare, they probably still are (?). Or sweep generator and storage scope with ch2 ref.



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solarlab posted this 20 January 2019

To assist in gaining a further appreciation of the external disturbance pulse shape on a coil's inner workings (see the paper above re: "VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION ALONG REACTOR WINDING UNDER VERY FAST TRANSIENTS").

This link to Gorchilin's website has some explainations and interactive graphs where you can set the harmonic content of a 'disturbance pulse' and see, in graphical form, how the disturbance pulse waveshape determines the standing and traveling waves found amongst the coil windings. Although presented as a 'long line,' consider it an unwrapped coil for demo purposes. However, the actual wound coil interaction is even more interesting - this is were a good CAE EM analysis is very handy! Translate (upper right - flags) and go to Articles [Notes], then the first set of topics.

Of interest is that by unique pulse harmonic selection, you can move from a standing wave to a traveling wave.

Note: Some browsers do not set up the examples cited in text properly - therefore you have to review the "numbers" in the URL and relate them to the parameters entered into the graphic. Gorchilin's web page has quite a number of interesting items. Follow the hot links (blue) to the demonstration graphics calculators.

For example: (in this URL the L=0.5 , Q=100, g=0. g=81... relate to the slider number settings on the left hand side; set these to see the actual waveform to be demonstrated as per the text).


solarlab posted this 30 January 2019

This is a long post and involves some of my observations (my opinions only). It initially was to be a response to another forum thread but evolved a bit. It is for information discussion only and contains unverified postulations. Consider it of value; or not.


F.Y.I.  [CAUTION - This is an ongoing "Work-in-Progress" rough draft]

GENERAL THEORY/OPINION - EXCESS ENERGY Version: 0.0.2 (Revised 21Jan19) Draft.

There are two parts to the following discussion: (1) How some parts of the Ruslan type device appear to work, in a general sense, and (2) a scheme that will greatly assist in the system's technical understanding, development and fabrication [using an off-the-shelf modified Internal Combustion Inverter Generator].

[[RA]] An alterative approach to that of the "Zenneck" method is given below. Zenneck may well be viable but other methods are also worthy of consideration; especially when they are easier, logical, achievable and more understandable up front. This alternative approach is provided for informational consideration only.

Part One - How it all might work, in a general, but very brief, sense.

[[RP]] Whether you use a Schumman/Zenneck/surface wave to trigger your system (hit the bell with in order to get it to ring [excess energy]) or you create an artificial source (an efficient pulse generator); it really does not matter, as long as the bell is periodically rung or the standing/traveling wave is initiated and maintained or the swing is occassionally pushed or the grandfather pendulum clock spring is wound once in a while. Consider potential and kinetic energy while observing dv/dt, di/dt; rapid impulse versus meandering wave. A stone thrown into a lake, a sumani, nature does it all the time; mimic nature.

Do not confuse a resonant structure with an oscillator; however a resonant structure can/will oscillate with a single stimulus and, if the "Q" is very high, it will continue to resonate/oscillate through many (n) cycles. In a resonant cavity (a helical coil, for example) a standing wave will move forward and return many times (n) with a single stimulus (pulse).

The excess energy created is then n-1. A cavity without loss (infinite Q) would yield infinite energy, and it would add up at a 4 times (4X) rate as the wave phases coincided as they cross each other (in phase - power). A traveling wave has similar characteristics and can be formed by simply including the correct amplitude and phase of the stimulus signal harmonics.

You need an intial power source [9VDC battery for example] to "start" the system; you need an super efficient scheme to resonate and/or use on-going waves that require very little power or a low repetition rate imputus to sustain the cycles, due to inherent losses; and you need an isolated method of drawing off the excess power without disturbing (killing) the excess power generating mechanism(s).

You can also add power boost techniques to increase the excess power output; such as a properly timed and phased potential difference, such as High Voltage pulses; or you can use an inverse current transformer method near the output.

To quote N. Tesla: "Think clearly, not deeply!" {A cute saying but wrot with contradiction - like the forest and tree saying}

At first glance the system appears to be quite complex; however, by viewing each piece individually, as a part of the overall system, the operation will quickly become clear. It's valuable to understand the detailed physics behind the methods, but it is certainly not required to go beyond basic reasoning and logic to appreciate the fundamental system operation.

One example of many [but thinking too deeply, it will get complex very quickly]: Take a coil and unwind it into a long line, for easy wavelength analysis. Stimulate the "near" end of the line with a waveform (sine, triangle, square, pulse - whatever) and terminate the "far" end with a "termination" (short, match, open - whatever). Observe what each combination of input and termination has on the "inter-line waveform."

Each long line will have a characteristic impedance based upon it's wavelength which determines it's "signal" reflection properties. But, keep in mind the coil, when wound, will have additional impedance parameters (a combination of turn to turn inductance and capacitance as well as self inductance and wavelength), although these can all be characterized and/or measured. Matching a line simply refers to terminating a coil or long line with it's corresponding complex condjugate impedance [opposite to the line inductance or capacitance - cancels the complex part (L or C) to yield a resistance only].

However for our purposes we want a line or coil that will reflect the input signal, therefore a mismatch is desired [a short to ground typically]. Refer to Gorchilin's site for an interactive graph demonstration. Note that if the "near" end generator is not matched to the line then the input signal will continue reflecting back and forth and building power as the reflected waves cross each other.

However, thinking clearly about the example above - A coil, cavity, line or other structure can be easily made to oscillate at it's natural resonant frequencies with a narrow stumulus [pulse]; and, if the structures are high "Q" [very low loss] they will oscillate for a long time without any further stimulus. To keep it oscillating - as it dies off - stimulate it again, but consider the phase.

In an ideal lossless LC circuit would a single stimulus (a pulse with the proper characteristics) oscillate/resonate forever? YES. If, however, the circuit was only "very efficient" (minimal losses, but had some slight losses) it would eventually die out, unless it was again stimulated at a future time, and so on. Only perodic stimulations would sustain continual oscillations at circuit resonance. A small periodic input stimulus (low power) will yield a large output power on a sustained basis!

Another consideration is "air core" versus "ferrite/steel core." Frequency, loss and size trade-offs. Recall Tesla's Coil is typically air core; whereas conventional (50/60Hz) transformers are steel or ferrite core; uninteruptable power supplies are torriod ferrite; television flybacks and yoke cores are typially ferrite material. Optimized for the application frequency [including harmonics], losses, size and power?

Lets try an analogy like the swing, or better yet, a merry-go-round. Attached on the outter edges are magnets and surrounding them are circular pickup coils. It's easy to periodically push the marry-go-round but the "interaction" [drag] between the magnets and the coils will quickly slow the circular motion. Akin to creating a low drag hull on a catamaran or a hovercraft versus a deep hull sail boat or cargo ship!

Now the challenge becomes eliminating this "drag." Loose coupling or Bi-Filar windings are effective techniques; or timing schemes where the Lenz/back EMF is isolated at the instant of extraction and the interactive "drag" is reduced or eliminated all together. You must extract the power without affecting the resonance oscillation and not decreasing system efficiency. Tricky but not impossible. Maybe that's where the real secret is? You need the coils to transfer magnetic flux but you must avoid self/mutual induction of this magnetic interaction. This is of primary importance.

Why can "IT" be done NOW? Technology has advanced (efficient, low power, complex devices) along with our understanding and the availability of powerful analysis/design/simulation tools that are now available to us. Some feature open access to the underlying mathematics [formulas] that can be manipulated to include non-conventional approaches.

A look at an Inverter/Generator (Internal Combustion Engine types) MODIFICATION for a Ruslan device:

Quite a lot can be learned by analyzing the operation if these generators when applied to the theory and design of an all Electronic type of Excess Energy Generator (no moving parts) similar to that of Ruslan's devices but easier to implement. But this is only a part of it - on the back end, so to speak.

Circuits used must be as efficient as possible, you still need to create a way to get excess energy, and these combined techniques all need to be coordinated, syncronized and generally isolated so that one does not affect the others.

Efficiencies and techniques should focus, for example, on Resonance (e.g. ringing bell - hit once it vibrates many times [OU]); Standing/Traveling Waves (single narrow pulse with appropriate harmonic content creates a standing or traveling wave in a coil that bounces up/down or forward/backward, building in energy with each ongoing cycle); High Voltage Pulsed current boosting (properly timed burst of excessive potential [and high speed - kinetic energy] stimulates electron movement and growth; Bi-Filar winding techniques (e.g. reduce back EMF - reduced coil winding interaction); Loose Coil Coupling (e.g. Tesla Coil or Melnichenko Coil); and so forth...

These methods provide the required efficiencies; where a small energy input can yield a much larger energy output.
Study resonance, especially where resistance theoretically becomes infinite (resistance/impedance equals loss) at the system resonant frequencies. NOTE: A resonant oscillator would oscillate forever if there were no losses and it remained in resonance - resonance must not be destroyed or interfered with - it must remain as isolated as practicable - and is must be fed from time to time to make up for any inevitable circuit losses. This is true for all highly efficient, high Q, circuits.

Removal of the excess energy from the system, without disturbing the energy producer, becomes the challenge. Some, or all, of the methods mentioned above have been employed successfully. There are likely many others. Think bits and pieces as well as the system as a whole. Voltage creates current, current produces magnetic fields, magnetic fields produce voltage, voltage produces current, current and voltage produce power, resistance is loss, impedance (phasing) can also be a friend, and so on.

Study OHMs Law (simplified but useful for understanding); I=V/R, current is proportional to voltage, but according to P=VI or I=P/V shows that current is inversly proportionl to voltage, changing R or P will increase or decrease V or I. If you increase V by keeping the source power constant then the current would decrease. When V increases, I decreases because P remains constant. I is proportional to V if R remains constant and Temperature remains constant. This is how transformers function (simplified). But, if the Power is improved then both V and I will increase. Draw OHMs Law circles and play with the values.

Part Two - Possibily a very good design and development Aid.

An AID in developing an excess energy generator - much of the work is already done in the Inverter/Generator. Study the schematic in the following article. Replace the Engine and Alternator with a high frequency, efficient, electronic (Ruslan style) device. And, keep the capacitor charged. It's so easy, you will laugh! Or not!

To quote in part from the article: "Inner Workings

A conventional generator rotates two large coils inside its core, and each full engine rotation produces one complete ac sine wave. By design, the engine must spin the generator at 3600 RPM to produce the desired ac output. If, because of varying loads, the generator spins faster or slower, the voltage and frequency of the output vary in step.
In an inverter generator, the core uses multiple coils and multiple magnets. Each full rotation of the engine produces more than 300 three phase ac sine waves at frequencies up to 20 kHz, which produces more electrical energy per engine revolution. A microprocessor-controlled inverter module converts the high-frequency ac to dc (about 200 V in at least one unit) before “inverting” it back to clean, stable 120 V, 60-Hz ac power.

Typical inverter generator regulation specs are 3% voltage, 1% frequency and 3% sine wave distortion. That’s essentially “power company” ac in a hand-carried unit!

Compare that to the other types of generators in Table 1. ..."

Schematic and Operation Theory:

Replace the Engine and 3-PH Alternator with a Ruslan type high voltage pumped grenade coil that feeds the bridge diodes which, in turn, feed the Capacitor. Keep the Capacitor charged at high frequency. This Capacitor in turn feeds a precision 120/240VAC 4KW electronic inverter (IGBT INVERTER using PWM CONTROL). You are no longer restricted to 3600 RPM and can drive the bridge/capacitor with high frequency pulses (e.g. 20KHz - internal diode frequency limit dependant).

This is a modified commercial off-the-shelf inverter type gennerator. Just add a means to keep the capacitor charged (Ruslan or similar device), the remainder of the inverter/generator provides a very clean 120/240V sine wave AC with all the AC plugs and battery included.

General Inverter/Generator Articles:

Lazar's Power Electronics Guide - an excellent source of information:

[[RA]] Good luck and have a productive week! Note: This is a "Work-in-Progress" rough draft.



Zanzal posted this 30 January 2019

Thank you Solarlab, a fine write up, I spotted a lot of gold nuggets in there. I will need to go back and study what you wrote some more in detail later as there were a several points which I was not familiar with, but which my intuition says is good.

Perhaps you already know this and if so another will find it useful. A very efficient means for generating a "surface wave" is to drive the transmission line [my preferred term for a conductive wave guide] directly with a mosfet driver (using only the driver itself not a mosfet). Specifically the IXDN602PI has been personally tested by me and operates very well at moderate frequencies (<200kHz) at between 7 and 35V input. The main benefits are low operation cost such that most of the current drawn is through displacement and not switching transistors and low voltage and low weight (no transformer needed).

solarlab posted this 01 February 2019

Some possible "useful" background technical information:

Waves and oscillations

Acceleration with alternating electric and magnetic fields

Of particular interest might be: Standing-wave resonant accelerating structures
and Longitudinal particle motion with an accelerating field.

The above from the Home page: Build a (Virtual) Particle Accelerator

Have an interesting, but relaxing if possible, weekend!


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Chris posted this 01 February 2019

Hey Solarlab, Thanks for the links, they all look very familiar, at least the titles. Have a good weekend too!


solarlab posted this 08 February 2019

The University of Surrey's Technical Support Unit (TSU) has a few pages of very practical, and useful, information:

An Introduction to Air Cored Coil page has some good formulas (if your into that sort of thing).

General topic; Producing wound components has some good links to information as well:

Searched the forum for these links, but nothing found - they might be handy as a reference!


Zanzal - thanks for the semiconductor info - they have some interesting (odd) devices!

solarlab posted this 26 February 2019

Quick Note: the last post was intended to point out some basic, but often overlooked, elements; e.g. differences between air core coils and ferrite core coils - linear v. non-linear operation, losses, hysteresis saturation, narrow band v. wide band, etc... Fundamental, but still very important stuff, IMHO.


Some more Theory and other {interesting (?)} Advancements:

1. Our march towards the ultimate theory discovery has also advanced a bit with the "simple understanding" of how the high voltage might contribute to achieving excess energy. A simple equation (the third equation [4.3]) found in a (lecture) chapter I'm sure we all don't recall [well, I didn't anyway}!

'Time Varying Fields, Simple Waves'
"Likewise, a time varying electric field induces a magnetic field through the displacement current, even in the absence of the current J = 0. As is well known, the displacement current played a crucial role in Maxwell.s prediction that electromagnetic waves can propagate through vacuum."

Formula (4.3).  [insert formula]

2. Also; Comsol Multiphysic's compiler does allow a complete problem solution to be compiled into an .exe file that can be run on a remote computer (Windows only at the moment) without a Comsol license, plus, the solution can contain variables. It's read only, however the problem can be formulated such that "If Then" parameter selections can be evaluated. Great! But needs more work and testing. 

This might be a nice aid for the MakerMark "kids" as well.

3. BTW, we have developed a Ruslan Generator type device "Test Set" that we plan on sharing with members of grooups like "MakerMark" to promote wide spread development of "electronic excess energy electrical power generation systems" (E4PGS).

There are two versions of the Test Set. V1 (original - high cost - many expensive instruments) and V2 (a single multi-function, low cost, instrument - but still very capable). We will release the details in a new thread very soon (still porting V1 to V2). The "Test Set" topic is more on the experimental hardware side; even though it's primary purpose is to support the theoretical validation and further development.

Anyway - "Stand-Bye" - !


solarlab posted this 26 February 2019

Forgot to mention the Test Set V1 and V2 equipment lists:

V1 - Picoscope (2 - 2 channel 5000 series); JDS2900 Function/AWG generators (up to 5 total, 2 minimum) [nice rise/fall times ~3nS, pulse width min 28nS (30MHz version - 60MHz version spec is 10nS min pulse width) at 10Vpp (more or less); Omicron BODE Vector Network Analyzer [VNA] (1Hz to 40MHz), HV Probe (50MHz), power supplies, etc..

These all have nice PC interface software (Gigabye Brix i7 16GB RAM 1TB SSD). This test setup works very good and does the job. Used for exercising the FET switches feeding the coils (Tesla and "TV Yoke" or ferrite torroid - push pull {half bridge} and T&M. Search for links and specs.

V2 - Analog Discovery 2 (AD2) by Digilent/Analog Devices. Multifunction PC based instrument (all in one Scope, Generator, AWG, VNA,16 channel I/O, pulse, Voltmeter, programability, etc.). Unique is the ability to use a variety of functions together at the same time (FPGA based). AND, the price/performance is unbelievable (so far appears to suite this application very well). Plus, the data can be exported directly to CAE for simulation, analysis and optimization.

A BIG extra feature of the AD2 is the Vector Network Analyzer and Arbitrary Waveform Generator capability.

Note: check out the "NI Academic products" for student pricing [left side of link].

We're preparing white papers and application notes for both Test Set versions focused on E4PGS and similar type devices.

More to come...

Off Topic Note: the early links in this thread will be fixed when time permits (many have been censored [removed] over on the OU forum - it's a long, involved, silly, story] frown 


solarlab posted this 06 March 2019

In a post last week the following was included, however it was somewhat burried so it's repeated again for clairity.

1. Our march towards the ultimate theory discovery has also advanced a bit with the "simple understanding" of how the high voltage might contribute to achieving excess energy. A simple equation (the third equation [4.3]) found in a (lecture) chapter I'm sure we all don't recall [well, I didn't anyway}!

2. Vyacheslav Gorchilin recently put up four (4) pages that are directly related. He, as usual, does an excellent job of explaining and analyzing, with included mathematics, the High Voltage "impact" on Ruslan's so called "Grenade Coil." Thanks to the {amazing} Gorchilin, we can now work towards completing our systems analysis.

This link is to the first of four pages.


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solarlab posted this 12 March 2019

High Voltage Pulses and Their Effect(s) on the System: [additional current]

As we (slowly) move through the Ruslan type excess energy generation analysis and theoretical development we try to equally equate the computer assisted engineering (CAE), numerical, and experimental paths as much as possible.

Realizing Maxwell's equations provides a look into Displacement Current; although in a round-about fashion where there must be magnetic (current) as well as electrical potential (voltage) in a transmitted through the air electromagnetic signal.

So, the question as to how the High Voltage Pulses (generated by a Tesla Coil, Katcher, or other means) might add to (increase) the Power (V * I) created within the system, while also keeping in mind the dv/di and/or dv/di phenomena, a quick look at a simple CAE example re: Displacement Current can provide insight {magnetic field and current are married as are potential difference and current - they are mutually inclusive}:

Note that one capacitor terminal (plate) is the so called [unterminated] "Antenna" driven from the Tesla Coil, while the other capacitor terminal (plate) is the Exciter/Grenade Coil; both have a return path common connection [ground].

Figures 2, 3 and 4 show the displacement current and induced conduction current density as well as the terminal current. Consider repeating this sequence very rapidly, using pulses with steep rise and fall times {nSec} (dv/dt), many times in a proper timing sequence (phase additive). Actually, it quite easy to simulate!

BTW; Test Sets are still being evaluated against CAE and experimental data (they're "in the works").

Have a good week!


solarlab posted this 12 March 2019

Question: Why a spiral (a few turns of wire) for the high voltage "antenna" plate and not a split tube or similar?

A guess answer for now: We are not charging a plate (or capacitor per sa). It's purpose is as a terminal only. We do not want the charge to "linger;" (no, or little, residual charge) but instead bleed off rapidly (within a few nSecs) and then await the next HV pulse (near zero dwell time). It is the rapid succession of dv/dt that is of interest.


Chris posted this 13 March 2019

Hey Solarlab - A fantastic question!

What does a Spiral do? What is the point of a Helix of Wire?

Some questions I have posed here: The Field Structure of Nature


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solarlab posted this 13 March 2019

Hi Chris, thanks for pointing out that great thread - some very interesting stuff.

However, the reference to a spiral (Tesla "antenna" which serves as "capacitive Hat" for that part of the Tesla Coil), in the above case, is with repect to a circuit analysis point of view. It is viewed simply as forming one plate of a capacitor, with the other plate being the exciter coil combined with grenade coil - these two plates form a type of asymetrical capacitor.

The idea of forming an asymetrical capacitor, where one plate is formed by a relatively thin wire (in a convienient spiral shape for ease of mounting) as opposed to a split tubular, or other such form, is high-lighted to emphasize the fact that we do not want to actually "charge" the plate structure since that would disrupt the pulsed high voltage (dv/dt) effect.

We need a very small (nSec) dwell time - the wire plate structure must discharge or equalize very quickly in order that the next high voltage pulse can be fully effective. If the capacitor plate remained charged the next high voltage pulse effect would be minimized to some extent.But note that there may be other, yet undiscovered (and unseen), things happening - as have been discovered when analyzing the so called grenade, and other, coils (EM CAE simulations).

Although it does appear in the simulation analysis of the coils that a spiral or vortex component is present and does, in fact, play a role; the mention of a spiral wire "antenna" in the circuit configuration in this case is meant more to point out only it's "use" as a capacitor plate (or terminal) with respect to displacement current in the circuit sense and the timing (dwell) parameter.

Hope this clarifies this analysis approach a little better. Not really related to nature or any vortex concept in this respect - just one plate of an asymetrical capacitor that is twisted around to facilitate easy mounting and satisfies the fast repetitive pulse requirements.

Viewing the system timing diagrams (when they are completed and varified) will help bring this to light.



Chris posted this 13 March 2019

Ah ok got ya - I missunderstood - Thanks Solarlab!


solarlab posted this 19 March 2019

QUESTION - Technical Testing Development


As part of our work with the "Maker" groups we are developing several "Test Sets" that focus primarily on the "Ruslan" type "Electronic Excess Energy Generation (E3G)" devices. These Test Sets specifically target providing a means to "exercise" various components of the E3G as well as the integrated system as a whole.

In an attempt to make a Test Set that is more viable, one of the instruments we are working with is the computer based "Digilent Analog Discovery 2" (TS-2) which has multifunction capabilities that includes, but is not limited to; dual channel oscilloscope and waveform generator, vector network analyzer, and logic generator and analyzer.

With a band width within our device test and exercise range [12MHz - 100MS/s], the Analog Discovery 2 and Waveforms3 software appears it might be a good fit [includes script and store]. It's many features and capabilities, however, present an initial complex challenge; but at it's near $200-$300US (lower with student discounts, etc.) price range the cost/bennefit is very appealing!

Brief Analog Discovery2 Instrument review and specifications are found here:

Our initial "Test Set (TS-1)" is fully capable of providing valuable project T&M but it's an expensive configuration of conventional test instruments and does not lend itself to providing each "Maker" participant with a personal test and exercise platform; thus, the transition to the Analog Discovery 2.


1. Do any of you fellows have or use a "Diigilent Analog Discovery (older version) or Analog Discovery 2 (new version) instrument? {or - Does your kid use one at school?}

2. Would you be interested in sharing your experiences with this instrument and relevant algorithms, etc.?

3. Also, we have a private (secure) network group dedicated to E3G design and are adding a "Test Set" component to that group if anyone is seriously interested and is in a position to contribute. [PM]

4. Any other constructive ideas, suggestions and comments?

BTW; We are still on-track for a June/July "project" release (pending validation, peer reviews and such).

Also, try looking into a local "Maker" or similar groups - can almost garantee you'll be very surprised and impressed (if you haven't done so already)!

Thanks and have a good week!


Full Disclosure:   We have no affiliation with Digilent, or any related entities, what so ever; other than being a full price, paying customer (no student discounts, nor free-be's).

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solarlab posted this 20 March 2019

Of Note (with respect to research sources) - Leave no stone unturned, so to speak!

Not all sources are equal, even when they appear to refer to the same thing. For example:

Wikipedia RU versus EN - "Displacement Current" [using Chrome browser for both + translate, if needed]

Reviewing these similar sounding sites (Wikipedia) for the same subject reveals two somewhat different takes on the definition. E.G.:

RU Version: "Displacement Current"

This term has other meanings, see Bias Current .

The bias current , or absorption current , is a quantity directly proportional to the rate of change of electrical induction . This concept is used in classical electrodynamics . Introduced by J. K. Maxwell in constructing the theory of the electromagnetic field.

The introduction of the bias current eliminated the contradiction [1] in the Ampere formula for the circulation of the magnetic field , which, after adding the bias current there, became inconsistent and compiled the last equation, which allowed to correctly close the system of equations (classical) electrodynamics.

The existence of a bias current also follows from the law of conservation of electric charge [2] .
Strictly speaking, the bias current is not an electric current [3] , but is measured in the same units as the electric current.

EN Version: "Displacement Current"

This article is about electric displacement current. For magnetic displacement current, see Magnetic current § Magnetic displacement current.

In electromagnetism, displacement current density is the quantity ∂D/∂t appearing in Maxwell's equations that is defined in terms of the rate of change of D, the electric displacement field. Displacement current density has the same units as electric current density, and it is a source of the magnetic field just as actual current is. However it is not an electric current of moving charges, but a time-varying electric field. In physical materials (as opposed to vacuum), there is also a contribution from the slight motion of charges bound in atoms, called dielectric polarization.

The idea was conceived by James Clerk Maxwell in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force, Part III in connection with the displacement of electric particles in a dielectric medium. Maxwell added displacement current to the electric current term in Ampère's Circuital Law. In his 1865 paper A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field Maxwell used this amended version of Ampère's Circuital Law to derive the electromagnetic wave equation. This derivation is now generally accepted as a historical landmark in physics by virtue of uniting electricity, magnetism and optics into one single unified theory. The displacement current term is now seen as a crucial addition that completed Maxwell's equations and is necessary to explain many phenomena, most particularly the existence of electromagnetic waves.

Oddly enough, maybe (?), my preference is the RU version.

This version also cites a reference of interest near the end regarding "Displacement current and charge conservation - The drama of ideas in the knowledge of nature" by Ya.B. Zeldovich, M.Yu. Khlopov, 1988

where the last sentence states; "But the most important role of bias current is probably ahead."

Gorchilin also pursues the subject in four pages here:

More than we wanted to know, right? - Have a good one...!

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solarlab posted this 14 April 2019

SCHEMATIC REVIEWS W.R.T. Test-Set facilitated analysis


Although there does not appear to be much interest anymore in the development or design of a Ruslan type excess energy generator device, these schematics (gathered from mostly internet sources) are presented as part of our Test-Set (Version 1 and 2) analysis approach. The .zip files ([using *1]- thirteen (13) two (2) in total at 4,883KB each 3,907KB and 3,008KB) include 100+ schematics and several pictures (120 total). Zip password is "schematics" without the quotes. Zips will be downloaded over the next few days so as to not overload the forum.

Two free programs (found on the internet) can be quite useful in reviewing the information after unzipping; "Infanview" and "ImageGlass". [*1] -Note that another free image compression program; "Caesium" was used to reduce the .jpg file size (?) - worked really well, reduced 13 zip files to 2 zip files; reduced size from approx 63,479KB total down to 6,945KB - wow! Appears to be no, or very little, loss of quality for schematics and photos.

Many of these included schematics have errors of various sorts. Many other internet schematics, it appears, contain purposeful errors or omissions - most of these (the ones we could identify) are not included in this zip file, however our "discard" analysis only narrowly focused on the (now) known agents-of-disinformation [only one of our many goals in this study].

Recall that, for whatever reasons, Ruslan never did publish any schematics. He did present, and refer to, several hand drawings in his early videos but as the few Shills in the group he was trying to educate became increasingly hostile, he withdrew from discussions.

My opine is that Ruslan, being of very good character but of short temper (one common trait of genius); he did not want to lead people astray, but prefered instead, to "test" the many options before commiting anything to stone! Note that Ruslan was extremely open and helpful in his early development discussions so it would be foolish to suggest that he was anything less than straight forward. Badgering by the many internet LARPs and SHILs eventually ruined an otherwise honorable and worthwhile experience.

We've see this type of abuse extremely often - the intelligent are punished for their good intentions and deeds by a vile, useless and very stupid few. But I digress... {likely part of the reason why this very forum exists today}.

Attached files: 1/2 - and 2/2 -


Attached Files

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solarlab posted this 14 April 2019


NOW, one approach to using this schematic collection might be to review them with respect to (w.r.t.) identifying the various system blocks; for example:

Air Coils (viewed as primary and secondary, transformer, Tesla);
Torroid Ferrite Coils (viewed as transformers, A/C or Pulsed Voltage translators, etc.)
Transistors, MOSFETS, etc.(viewed as ON-OFF Power Switches);
Capacitors (viewed as A/C coupling, energy storage, Filtering, etc.);
Resistors (viewed as voltage translation, current sensing, etc.);
Wires (direct interconnections, etc.).

Keep in mind, as well, efficiency, magnetic coupling, displacement currents (that high voltage - current - magnetic thing from Maxwell's equations) and importantly, the dv/dt and di/dt thing where a fast pulse [nSec rise and fall time] provides four (4) times the energy {not double - mathematically proven - kinetic energy [e=mc^2]}. Also, when is the opportune time to "inject" this extra {free} energy into the system and how often can/should this be done w.r.t. to an output load.

Does the system frequency of operation matter? How are the blocks isolated, do they interact in an adverse way? Is efficiency important - is a pulsed Tesla Transformer efficient w.r.t. a 50 or 60 Hz sine wave - can you convert a MHz/KHz system to industrial/commercial line power? Some of these schematics will hopefully help provide these answers [keeping in mind there may be a variety of mistakes and misconceptions within]!

The prior mentioned Test-Sets are presented in an effort to assist in analyzing the "Blocks" and providing insight into the "Block Integration." Test-Set Version 1 uses two function generators and their trigger and phase adjustment capabilites to trigger the MOSFET switches precisely, as required. Test-Set Version 2 provides more capability with it's built-in instruments, however the MOSFET triggering is more complex since the digital function generator is used [script programming is helpful]. Also, combining the Test-Set 1 and 2 concepts can take advantage of both. This will be discussed in detail later. One step at a time!

For now, gaining an appreciation of the concept and {probable - mathematical} theory is the primary objective.

Once we get into the physical build we will actually design the various blocks, analyze them and optimize them for performance efficiency; while at the same time characterize their interaction {coupling efficiencies, interferences, etc.} as an integrated system.

That's were the real fun {challenge} is! We will then comfortably know both the "why" and the "how" it all works.

Attached files: and

Attached Files

solarlab posted this 16 April 2019

Before moving on to the actual physical design and build, there are few more "tools" that might come in handy before we start. One involves the ability to fabricate accurate coils quickly and easily while keeping a reference catalogue for future replication(s):

Coil Winding - A (free) CNC GCode File Creation Program

A handy program to help in quickly building up your CNC Coil Winding gcode file needs for your cnc lathe, custom built cnc coil winder, or whatever. We do anticipate making a variety of precision coils for test, analysis and characterization.

Gsuite_v1.3.rar and updated Gsuite_v1.4 includes several (free) gcode generating programs, one of which is Gcoil v1.0 and an updated Gcoil v1.1. Included in the package are good "readme" information files. They run directly under Windows OS, no install required (Win10 ? - have not tested it).

Gcode (see screen shots below) provides an easy method of creating a single layer coil gcode file for use on pretty much any CNC machine (most controllers will accept gcode text files). CNC machines is a large subject and is beyond the scope of this post.

Briefly, each coil layer is created as a seperate file [e.g.,, etc.]. These seperate files can be combined into a complete Coil gcode file with any text or gcode editor, as required, with the needed stops, etc. enbedded.

A Tesla Secondary Coil would be a simple, single layer, 500 turn (?) coil. The Grenade Coil would be a 6 layer coil; with either six seperate gcode files or a single file with enbedded stops (to secure the wire), L=>R, R=>L (feeder), and LH RH wind (spindle) functions.

Study the "Readme_gcode.pdf" for program usage details.
Addendum: Gsuite_1.4 includes Gcoil 1.1 which now has provisions for "Layers" but study the Readme carefully and review the generated gcode file!

A big bonus of using CNC for coil winding is you only have to set it up and perfect it one time; after which you can then wind dozens or many thousands of coils. Plus, a good coil gcode program can be easily simulated, shared, or sent to a production fabricator.

A huge thanks goes out to "schouten_tjeerd" for his fine work!

alohalaoha posted this 16 April 2019

Карноухов и Кулабухов - архив !

solarlab posted this 17 April 2019

1KHz thru 2GHZ SPECTRUM ANALYZER for a Hundred Dollars (US) [is also a wideband radio receiver]

Another T&M Instrument worthy of note is a 1KHz thru 2GHz Spectrum Analyzer costing about $109US.

SDRplay's RSP1A is a 14-Bit SDR (Software Defined Radio) Pc based instrument with uninterupted frequency coverage focused primarily as a wideband radio receiver. However, using the "Spectrum Analyzer V1.0A" software application (new as of March 2019) this SDR will function as a pretty decent spectrum Analyzer. This software also has provisions for controlling a seperate Tracking Generator (Arduino based external device - not tested by us yet) to form a Scalar Network Analyzer.

Note: this SDR is also a fully functional wideband receiver when using SDRplay's SDRUNO application.

Both applications work very well! As a Spectrum Analyzer the price/performance is excellent, however, things like a built-in signal attenuator are missing and must be added externally. As a "first pass" RFI check this instrument is probably well worth the cost.

A hundred dollar 1KHz to 2GHz "anything", that works, is hard to beat. Our test SDR [RSP1] is discontinued but works well using Spectrum Analyser V1.0A. SDRplay has a variety of SDR radios, the RSP1A is the least expensive. SDR's are fun to "play with" as well!

Documents and Software downloads:

Spectrum Analyzer and SDR Radio screen shots:


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solarlab posted this 21 May 2019

A Brief NOTE re: this thread [Theory related to Excess Energy].

As we near the release of our "Ruslan Generator Theory and Proof-of-Concept" project, and, after evaluating the "best method of disclosure;" it appears that an industry related Periodical and/or Web Site would best suit our needs and goals.


Also, rather than attempt to "fix" any of the links to other forums that are here that have become corrupted [hi-jacked in these remote forums], I have left them intact but with a strike through.


Once our manuscript(s) are peer reviewed, accepted and published we may start a new thread on this forum (AU) for discussion and comment. We have had some great success working with several MakerMark groups on this project and we are still "on course" for a "Summer 2019" release.

Have a very productive and wonderful Spring! And all the best of luck with your "excess energy" endevours...



solarlab posted this 01 June 2019

Expanded dump from Solarlab post on the AKULA thread

The principle of Roman’s Kornouhov & Tariel’s Kapanadze systems is now available to everyone.

Dmitry Maksimov
Published on May 30, 2019
Today you will know the secret and principle of the Tariel’s Kspanadze system. This video is public and I would like as much as possible people to know about this technology. You are free to share this video if you want, it is welcome.

(1 of 4) Why is "Dmitry Maksimov's video" of such great interest and value?

One long standing fundamental question with respect to 'excess energy' generating devices is "Where does this extra energy come from?"

There have been many postulations (unproven theories) over the years; some include an attempt at a mathematical proof while others show good demonstrations of excess energy production; but few, if any, combine a valid physical setup with accompanying (believable) math based upon known (orthadox) science, physics or engineering principles. This is not an easy task!

So; note that Dmitry Maksimov clearly demonstrates that by injecting a High Voltage Pulse into his (relatively simple) circuit coil arrangement; with correct timing; does indeed appear to increase the available power found in the circuit. Dmitry is quick to realize the affect and, since his circuit is straight forward, it may provide a very good platform for more expermentation and detailed analysis. For example; what effects might various HV pulse slopes, durations and injection phases have on the increased circuit power.

Further, do these effects follow in some way, the mathematics - one example being the series of formulas and discussion found below.

'Time Varying Fields, Simple Waves'

"Likewise, a time varying electric field induces a magnetic field through the displacement current, even in the absence of the current J = 0. As is well known, the displacement current played a crucial role in Maxwell.s prediction that electromagnetic waves can propagate through vacuum."
Formula (4.3). [insert formula]
[note the time derivative part - faster rise/fall of higher voltage pulse => more excess power]
[also note - more pulses/sec => more excess power] [note - generating HV pulses is minimal system power cost]

Continued... in some detail here (so as not to flood this thread):

...From (1): Why is "Dmitry Maksimov's video" of such great interest and value?
'Time Varying Fields, Simple Waves'
"Likewise, a time varying electric field induces a magnetic field through the displacement current, even in the absence of the current J = 0. As is well known, the displacement current played a crucial role in Maxwell.s prediction that electromagnetic waves can propagate through vacuum."
Formula (4.3). [insert formula]


Vyacheslav Gorchilin recently put up four (4) pages that are directly related. He, as usual, does an excellent job of explaining and analyzing, with included mathematics, the High Voltage "impact" on Ruslan's so called "Grenade Coil." Thanks to the {amazing} Gorchilin, we can now work towards completing our systems analysis.
This link is to the first of four pages.

...From (2): Why is "Dmitry Maksimov's video" of such great interest and value?
Other references (of the many found);
Genesis Project
Longitudinal Waves and Transverse Waves tests

...From (3): Why is "Dmitry Maksimov's video" of such great interest and value?
Resonance? In general -


[View this series of "pdf" pages in a browser where you have the pages displayed one after (on top of) the other]
Scroll up and down a bit through the 42 pages - note the Series - Parallel - wavelength and duality => Voltage vs Current MULTIPLICATION as you spin the mouse wheel!,-60,278

and, also consider

Then, look at these pages:


...From (4): Why is "Dmitry Maksimov's video" of such great interest and value?

By Professor E. G. CULLWICK, O.B.E., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.E., Member.
(The paper was first received 12th April, and in revised form13th June, 1955. It was published
as an INSTITUTION MONOGRAPH in September, 1955)

Conservation of Energy. Readings on the Origins of the First Law of Thermodynamics. Part II
Jaime Wisniak, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel 4105. Correo electrónico:">
Ingles (English) pdf">

See notable page 222: Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
"Helmholtz concludes this section as follows: "
(a) Whenever natural bodies act upon each other by forces of attraction or repulsion, which are independent of time and velocity, the sum of their *** vires vivae and tensions must be constant; the maximum quantity of work which can be obtained from them is therefore fixed and finite;
(b) if, on the contrary, bodies possess forces which depend upon time and velocity, or which act in other directions than the lines which unite each two separate material points, for example, forces of rotation, then combinations of such bodies would be possible in which force might be either lost or gained ad infinitum."
*** vis viva noun vis vi·va | \-ˈvīvə\ plural vires vivae\-īˌvē \

Definition of vis viva : the force of a moving body calculated as the product of its mass and the square of its velocity : twice the kinetic energy ***


Based on Helmholtz's conclusion above consider rapidly increasing the "tension" by pulsed high voltage. In the patent below, paragraph [0002], replace the "electron mass reduction" idea with the "pulsed high voltage" concept.

US 2014/O159845 A1 Jun. 12, 2014
TO MAGNIFY INDUCTIVE Inventor William N. Barbat

Electrical oscillations in a “sending coil” radiate inductive photons toward one or more “energy-magnifying coils” comprised of a photoconductor, doped semiconductor, or a superconductor. Electrons of low inertial mass in the energy-magnifying coil(s) receive from the sending coil a transverse force having no in-line backforce. The low-mass electrons in the energy-magnifying coil(s) receive acceleration proportional to normal electron mass divided by the lower mass. Secondarily radiated inductive-photon energy is magnified proportionally to the electrons' greater acceleration, squared. Magnified inductive-photon energy from the energy-magnifying coil(s) induces oscillating electric energy in one or more “output coil(s).” The electric energy output exceeds energy input if more of the photon-induction energy is directed toward the output coil(s) than as a counter force to the sending coil. After initiating the oscillations, the generation of electric power becomes self-sustaining.

[0002] This disclosure introduces a technical field in which practical electrical energy is created in accordance with the overlooked exception to the energy-conservation rule that Herman von Helmholtz described in his 1847 doctrine on energy conservation: “If . . . bodies possess forces which depend upon time and velocity, or which act in directions other than lines which unite each pair of material points, . . . then combinations of such bodies are possible in which force may be either lost or gained ad infinitum.” A transverse inductive force qualifies for Helmholtz's ad infinitum rule, but this force is not sufficient of itself to cause a greater energy output than input when applied to electrons of normal mass due to their unique charge-to-mass ratio. However, the increased acceleration of conduction electrons of less-than-normal inertial mass, as occurs in photoconductors, doped semiconductors, and superconductors, is proportional to the normal electron mass divided by the low electron mass, and the magnification of harnessable inductive energy is proportional to the greater relative acceleration, squared.

[0003] Magnetic force also satisfies Helmholtz's exemption to the energy-conservation rule because magnetic force is transverse to the force that causes it, and magnetic force is determined by the “relative velocity” (i.e., perpendicular to the connecting line) between electric charges. Magnification of magnetic force and energy was demonstrated by E. Leimer (1915) in the coil of a speaker phone and in the coil of a galvanometer when he irradiated a radio antenna-wire with radium. A 10-milligram, linear radium source produced a measured 2.6-fold increase in electrical current in the antenna-wire in comparing inaudible radio reception without radium to audible reception with radium. This represented a (2.6)2=7× increase in electrical energy flowing through the respective wire coils. The possibility of this enhanced reception being attributed to a person's body holding the unit of radium to the wire was eliminated by Leimer's additional observation that, whenever the orientation of the small radium unit was changed to approximately 30 degrees relative to the wire, the energy enhancement ceased.

end of this part

solarlab posted this 05 June 2019

Book: A very good read - interesting and well done!


RU pdf:


“Electricity and its unusual properties” - Vasiliev OV

A reasonable computer "English" translation attached.

Attached Files

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solarlab posted this 07 June 2019

Another excellent paper by: Alexander Abramovich

Генератор БТГ Романа Карноухова (принципы работы, устройство и настройки)
Generator BTG Roman Karnoukhov (principles of operation, device and settings)

A (reasonable) computer machine "English" translation attached.
[[Note: see the original Russian paper for missing/corrupted translation formulas and text formats.]]

Also NOTE: These books, papers and other materials are provided as "reference study material" only.


EDIT: Removed attached file and replaced with a bit more "readable" translation; sorry! embarassed


Attached Files

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solarlab posted this 08 June 2019

EDIT: Removed above attached file and replaced with a bit more "readable" translation; sorry! embarassed

BTW: Bulk machine translations of RU to EN, like the one above, seem to add a lot of "not" into the text - apparently this is "typical," however these added "not's" can skew the text meanings - so read carefully and use your logic when interpreting the technical teachings. Tricky - yes - but it does make you think about it "all" a little harder! wink



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solarlab posted this 07 July 2019

A quick example of using CAE/CAD analysis.

Using CAE to determine air coil coupling [by Kamyar K]. In this case two flat spiral coils.
First; mutual inductance is calculated using Ansys Maxwell.

Build the coil(s)

Determine (calculates) inductances and mutual inductance from the physical CAD models for various distances and frequencies (3 videos), including coupling coefficients [never greater than 1]

3. Set the magnetic resonance (by addiUng capacitors) and measure the power transfer using Ansys Simplorer

The above example is focused on a wireless power transfer (WPT) study but some of this analysis technique also applies to other air coil configurations and energy systems!

Since the analysis involves only looking at the physical structure and placement of the coils using EM; almost any "device form" can be analyzed and parametrically optimized quite quickly. Very helpful... No numeric analysis required - except for a varification check. Although a physical build and measure is probably much better.

Also good (interesting) to see our "Maxwell's Displacement Current" postulation is finally finding it's way into other forums
{ }.


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solarlab posted this 11 July 2019

Determining Air Core Asymetric Transformer Characteristics

To gain a bit of an appreciation of our "Coil combinations - Asymetric Transformer - " operational parameters, a technical look at the various analysis solutions might be helpful. The following video briefly reviews several solvers, their capabilities and what is addressed, plus what results they can yield.

201- Ansys Maxwell- Which type of solutions (Analysis) should I use?
By kamyar K, published on Jan 4, 2015.


There are nine (9) videos in this series, however this video (201) introduces most of the parimeters used in our analysis.

Although iterative coil winding and measuring can achieve a working "Ruslan type Generator;" a degree of luck and a great deal of experience is needed. It quickly becomes very time consuming and expensive but little detailed information, with respect to developing a viable theory, is gained. This was the primary reasoning behind moving our analysis approach to using CAE/CAD/CAM.

The ultimate goal is to achieve a viable, buildable, reliable commercial product - unfortunately thousands of hand wound coils with light bulb demonstrations on youtube will not get you there.

To the best of my knowledge you will not find - anywhere - a comprehensive technical analysis of an "air core asymetrical transformer;" while even the best numerical analysis do not even begin to scratch the surface - you simply can not analyze, never mind build, a functional and reproduceable device, from the pages and pages of derivations, math formulas, cartoons and so forth; as history - to date - has proven.



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solarlab posted this 13 July 2019

Sort of - Off Topic - but some may find this to be "interesting information:"


A world-wide organization focused primarily on energy and it's many implications across a very broad spectrum.

Celebrating their Forty-Second (42nd year) anniversary;  the AEE provides some diverse offerings, however, there is still no "excess energy {FE} chapter" as yet, but one may well appear in the near future.

A quote from the AEE: "We are the energy managers that help institutions save on energy costs so they can better serve their communities." For the most part these folks appear to be 'low cost energy source friendly' with good professional insights.

AEE propaganda brochure:

Anyway, just some F.Y.I. for now!


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solarlab posted this 17 July 2019

RUSLAN Theoretical thread WRAP-UP

This paper, a Thesis by Craven in 2014, will serve to "wrap-up" this RUSLAN Theoretical thread. Our final findings will be published elsewhere in the near future; and, from this point at least, they look to be quite exciting!

Although the thesis focuses on analyzing a Tesla Transformer, it contains a twist where helical filter methods are employed. It also contains some good appendicies and other information.

PDF can be downloaded from here:

Best wishes in your hunt for AU, Good Luck to everyone, and have a great summer!



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Chris posted this 18 July 2019

All the very best SL! Have a great Summer!


solarlab posted this 3 weeks ago

Asymmetric Transformers in Superunit Circuits

An interesting Theoretical discussion by AAbramovich can be found on this forum:

Note: Abramovich is an older Theoretical Physist with, self admittedly, very little technical electronics skill; but, his analysis appear quite logical and are very well written.

Асимметричные трансформаторы в сверхъединичных схемах
(Asymmetric Transformers in Superunit Circuits) - eight pages:

Anyway, IMHO, a good discussion and well worth the read... SL

PS Monsoon season for the past few days, rain fade big time - so posted this while time permits it!


Attached Files

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solarlab posted this 2 weeks ago

Lenz Law - a little ironic humour =

Commenton Lenz's Law - consider alternative!

   Consider the Alternative!  



Also, might be of interest/useful at some point:

(see figure 10.3.5 )
And a "Shameless Plug!" roots - Space Engineering Division - U of SASK Saskatoon )

A time-proven method when trying to describe, in writing, new disruptive technology, is to first try "teaching it" to a somewhat non technical diverse group such as a "Maker" crowd. It's amazing how much "you" will end up learning as well!



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Chris posted this 2 weeks ago

Hey Solarlab,

Good post!

An in-depth break down of Lenz's Law, the very facts that can be gleamed by observing the very fundamental basic operation of this Law, is extremely enlightening!

The Right Hand Grip Rule is extremely important to see the actual operation:

Apply this to any Transformer:


At least when they are drawn correctly, then one gets this:

Very simple study, very easily proven on the bench, and very enlightening for one that has the will to learn!

NOTE: Lenz's Law is a Current Flow phenomena, it has nothing to do with Electromagnetic Induction which only, yes only predicts Voltage! Current is predicted by Ohms Law, I = V / R, or I = P / V or:



If no current flows, there is no reaction force in the form of Negative Torque, however there is still a Voltage! Or an E.M.F!

We confuse Lenz's Law with the Negative Reaction Force, but Lenz's Law is actually the prediction of the Polarity of Voltage. So, there is really no definition for the Negative Reaction Force, that forces our Input Current to increase in a Transformer as we increase the Load, or the Shaft Torque to increase in an Electrical "Generator" when loading the Output Coils. 

Great post!


solarlab posted this 2 weeks ago

Good information Chris, thanks.

Suttle differences (?) Lorentz vs Faraday

Examination of the "grenade coil" in more detail indicates some important understanding that is not clear in modern physics and electrodynamics. This is brought to light by AAbramovich in the above referenced forum discussions.

One of these important principles is the equivalence of Faraday induction and Lorentz induction. Induction according to Lorentz is associated with a shift of magnetic lines when a magnetic field moves or changes, which also leads to a change in the magnetic flux forming induction according to Faraday.

As a result, induction according to Faraday is only one of the possible means of induction on Lorentz in other physical parameters. In particular, in the category of changes in the magnetic flux parameter.

Equivalence of induction according to Lorentz and Faraday

A rapidly changing current creates an alternating magnetic field B, with induction lines shifting with speed v = dx / dt. The shift of the induction lines with speed v creates a field of Ampere-Lorentz electric forces near the coil.

E * = v * xB = - vxB is the field of electrical forces of Ampere-Lorentz.
where v = dx / dt is the shear rate of the lines of magnetic induction

v * = - dx / dt is the speed of the charge with respect to the lines of magnetic induction

B is the magnitude of the vector of magnetic induction at the point of shear of the line

This induction is called Lorentz induction. It forms an electromotive force in a conductor, U = EL = (vx B) L, where L is the length of the conductor under the influence of the Lorentz induction force.

Whereas there is still Faraday induction associated with a change in magnetic flux,

U = - dF \ dt

What is the relationship of induction in Lorentz and Faraday?

As calculations show, these inductions are equivalent, that is, they are one and the same induction, but in its different entries through different physical parameters. Moreover, Faraday induction is a shortened form of Lorentz induction, which is derived from the Lorentz induction formula.


v = dx / dt - shear rate of magnetic induction lines

v * = - dx / dt - charge velocity relative to magnetic induction lines

E * = v * x B - Ampere-Lorentz force field acting on a charge

Based on the foregoing, we write the electromotive force acting in a closed conductor of length L on the charge from the side of a changing magnetic field with shifting induction lines (there is a shift in the equipotential induction surfaces)

U = E * L = (v * x B) L = - (vx B) L = - B x dx / dt · L = - B x dS / dt = - dФ / dt

Where dS = dx · L is the change in the area of ​​the magnetic flux, dФ = B x dS is the change in the magnetic flux of the field of magnetic induction lines in connection with their shift in accordance with the induction of Lorentz.


Thus, induction according to Faraday and induction according to Lorentz is the same induction associated with a shift of the magnetic field lines. The magnitude of the electric field

E * = - B x dx / dt

Induction depends on the shear rate of the induction lines, which in turn depends on the frequency of the current, and on the rate of change of current over time. The faster current and magnetic field changes, the higher the emf. If we take single pulses of high voltage, then they lead to the most rapid change in current in the circuit, at low active and reactive resistances. That allows you to create high values ​​of the shear rates of the lines of magnetic induction and, in turn, large electromotive forces in the conductors.

Real Devices

In real devices, the formation of phases of self-induction or induction and counter-emf of primary and secondary circuits depends not only on the direction of induction B, but also on the direction of the shear rate of magnetic induction lines in various phases of operation and parts of the device.

Therefore, if we want to exclude in the device the action of secondary harmful counter-emf, then we should think about the phases of induction and the directions of movement of the induction lines in them.

What is the way to create asymmetrically working transformers, that is, transformers without secondary counter-emf, which are the key to creating excess energy devices using purely electrical circuits.

This subtle characteristic might be leveraged to achieve a useful application.



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Chris posted this 2 weeks ago

Hey Solarlab,

Another excellent post! All here is a Scientific approach and agreed upon in todays world view.

However, Magnetic Field Lines truly do not touch the Secondary Conductors: MIT Video


There is no Flux Cutting as we understand Electromagnetic Induction today.

Note: The Magnetic A Vector Potential is an Electric Field. Phi, the Magnetic Field Lines, inside the Transformer Core, leaves behind the Magnetic A Vector Potential.

See: Physics Resources


solarlab posted this 2 weeks ago

Hey Chris,

Being from the "Ole' School" so to speak, not all of us totally agree upon todays Scientific approach world view.

Here's some related notes from an old lecture - now a book at MIT Open Courseware:

Electromagnetic Field Theory Textbook Components [MIT Open Courseware]

Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction, pp. 393-486

6.1 Faraday's law of induction, pp. 395-405
6.2 Magnetic circuits, pp. 405-417
6.3 Faraday's law for moving media, pp. 417-435
6.4 Magnetic diffusion into an ohmic conductor, pp. 435-451

     Of particular interest:
        6.4-2, The Magnetic Diffusion Equation [page 437];
       6.4-3, Transient Solution with No Motion (U =0);
       6.4-4, The Sinusoidal Steady State (Skin Depth)

6.5 Energy stored in the magnetic field, pp. 451-460
6.6 The energy method for forces, pp. 460-465

Problems, pp. 465-486

Also, another interesting section from the book -

6-3-3 Faraday's Disk (Homopolar Generator)*

   (b) Self-Excited Generator 

For generator operation it is necessary to turn the shaft and supply a field current to generate the magnetic field. However, if the  field coil is connected to the rotor terminals, as in Figure 6-16a, the generator can supply its own field current. The equivalent circuit for self-excited operation is shown in Figure 6-16b where the series connection has i,= ir.

Figure 6-16 A homopolar generator can be self-excited where the generated rotor current is fed back to the field winding to generate its own magnetic field. Tesla fooled with this a bit as I recall... his spiral postulations...

Haven't tried this one yet but hey, some day maybe! But we'll finish the Ruslan theory writeup and beta's first.



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Chris posted this 2 weeks ago

Hey SL,

With no doubt I say there are holes in EM Theory, I am going to say deliberate holes.

I think it is important to say: A Changing Magnetic Field in the Proximity of a Conductor induces an E.M.F.

Some think the Homopolar Disk is an amazing intellectual uninvestigated apparatus that will save us all... I think it is the same as dropping a Magnet through a Closed Copper Tube.

I think we need to be careful about over estimating, and be more practical about the fundamentals.

We must say: Any Conductor in proximity to a Changing Magnetic Field will have an E.M.F induced. Any Conductor with a Time Changing Current will produce a Time Changing Magnetic Field, which in turn can then be used as a source so a Conductor in close proximity will then have a induced E.M.F on it.

The Chicken or the Egg... We have a pattern we must think about.


solarlab posted this 2 weeks ago

Chris - some excellent points!

Not sure the "Swiss Cheese" EM theories holes are deliberate - it's a complex and difficult subject, while often times a "half theory" is used to describe a specific problem in an attempt to keep from getting too far into the weeds!

Most who are skilled in the art can appreciate Faraday, Ampere, Volta and so on, and, at least fundamentally what their "discoveries" entail.

Personally, overestimating (dreaming) for me is a definite motivator - and if it works, great - if not, it's still viewed as "knowledge gained" - like our [SED] Shuttle - Satellite tether voltage experiment - failed (twice), but was "fun and educational" at worst!

Mentioning Volta here for a specific reason:

Gorchilin recently published three pages regarding "Electrostatic Condenser." He presents his "postulation" in his excellent manner, as usual; mostly mathematics based (with MathCAD files),  and some great "food for thought." (3 pages)

Anyway, this one has me very curious - having studied electrostatics and electrophorus effects; his numbers appear valid. On page three he provides several interesting charts  [worth a close look IMHO].

But again, another curiosity (build) put on-hold till our main project is ready. Although the three main multi-physics EM analysis/simulators we have access to can combine the various needed aspects - so a quick simulation might be quite interesting! TBD, if time permits.


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Chris posted this 2 weeks ago

Hey SL,

Excellent articles! Thanks for sharing!

This applies to the Winding Capacity also! Each Winding in a Coil is subjected to the very same Electrostatic Charge Coupling. We then have as was termed in the article: A Condenser.

The Math is well beyond my basic Math Skills but I see the importance!

SL, I very much enjoy our exchanges, thank you for the sharing of your expertise!

Perhaps a little off topic, so please say and I am happy to post else where, but one of my favorite experiments:


Tuning the Function "Generator" for Inductor Resonance, the Inductor with Distributed Capacitance, becomes a simple Tank Circuit, the Inductor is both an Inductor and also a Capacitor!

XL = XC = Z.


Distributed Capacitance, between the Windings, is an Electrostatic phenomena, no Current can flow as we would expect in a Tank Circuit!

As an Antenna Radiates, the Coil Radiates, Charge can flow to the end of the Coil and back again with only a loss defined by: Q = Conductance x sqrt( L / C )

The simple Helix of Wire, the Coil is an extremely interesting machine! I say machine as Sub-Atomically, its a race car track of Charge!


solarlab posted this 2 weeks ago

     (we have to quit meeting like this - I think my wife is getting suspicious!)

Not off topic in the least - all this stuff "IS" the topic, very related; IMHO anyway!

As an aside: Nearly all passive electronic devices exhibit resistance, capacitance and inductance whether they are considered lumped or distributed (lumped elements generally have an abundance of all three characteristics - a capacitor with it's inductive leads, dielectric resistive characteristics and it's plates or coiled foil as the capacitive element).

Once the frequency increases these three parameters really come into play and are also complicated by thermal effects. Chip components and microstrip type layouts help considerably but the parasitics (unwanted parameters) are still present and must be considered (dealt with).

One fundamental short comming that's observed more often than not (relates to the Swiss Cheese - avoid the weeds thing) is for low frequency work displacement current is ignored, since "it" can be and the results are not noticably in error; plus it makes things much easier and quicker to do. This, I believe, over time has created a systemic over site and an almost patch-work (full of holes) approach when considering insights into "new things."

Your "favourite experiment," even though it appears as a simple coil, still contains all the elements; resistance, capacitance, inductance, radiation characteristics (including displacement current) and is affected by matching to the air dielectric (377 ohms) along with the scope probe loading (1 or 10 Meg Ohm with 10 pF), plus, since it's open circuit (working into a high impedance reference versus 50 ohms real (matched), for example) - will likely be pretty unstable (move your hand around it and the self resonance frequency will change (a lot)!

You can put another coil of exact characteristics in close proximity and achieve a coupling factor of near 100% but that won't yield any excess energy. Something else is required - maybe a "partnered output" coil. The primary is then not affected (loaded) by the secondary (no Lenz BEMF)...

Gorchilin also mentions the coil parasitic capacitance in thelast paragraph of his paper; quote:

"Other types of generators

In this paper, we presented a calculation of a generator for an ESC on a spherical capacitor. In the most general terms, ESCs are two or more alternating plates, the shape of which can, in principle, be any. Example: coaxial capacitor. Another example: a plate capacitor consisting of two or more parallel plates (Fig. 1d).
The ESK in the form of an inductive capacitor looks like a practical option, where two classic or bifilar, wound on each other or adjacent, coils serve simultaneously as inductors and capacitors for the circuit in the figure (3d).
Nicola Tesla’s device has proven itself, in which the first circuit (Fig. 3d) is a transmitter - the Tesla Transformer (TT) with a sphere at the hot end, and the second receiving one or several similar TTs. In such a scheme, the wave properties of the coils must be taken into account, and the coupling coefficient ks must be calculated between two spheres located at a certain distance."

XL = XC = Z

Consider your open ended coil a simple (unmatched) Helical Antenna for a moment. You have R + j and R - j complex components which is characteristic of any element (lumped or distributed) [R L C] plus parasitics.

At resonance the L and C components or elements cancel each other, leaving only the real R - in this case near infinity since your reference is near open circuit and your frequency is likely not high enough to consider any substantial radiation (displacement current); the "Q" should appear to be very high.

What Gorchilin is pointing out, possibly, is that, mathematically at least, if you also consider the electrostatic component of a "condenser" along with the electrodynamics, and model the capacitor as one ordinary and two solitary capacitors, a three tank circuit with inductors as it were, you theoretically (matematically) can achieve AU.

An interesting "thing" to say the least.

Anyway, sorry for the long post, hope some of it makes sense; have a good day!


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Chris posted this 2 weeks ago

Hey Vasile, Reply here.

Hey SL,

My Wife is thinking the same sealed.

I completely agree with your post, all I have says the same, data is telling me the same.

We must look toward the Goal, Voltage and Current and define the minimum requirements to give use the Voltage and Current we require. Lay out a definitive path, a set of required tasks that our Conductor Loops must achieve.

I am in the process of doing a break down video, covering the absolute basics of Electromagnetic Induction and what these requirements are. I hope your data agrees with mine...

Still not sure if this video is the right thing just yet, I think for some it may steer them the wrong way... So will think more on this and keep you updated.

I should say, in a Transformer, the opposition of the Secondary reduces the Impedance of the Primary, then the primary Current starts to increase... This process can be made Resonant. The reasons a Coil is forced to reduce its impedance intrigues me!

As you say, only R, Resistance is left behind. The Magnetic Field is an AMAZING thing!


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The great Nikola Tesla:

Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point of the universe. This idea is not novel. Men have been led to it long ago go by instinct or reason. It has been expressed in many ways, and in many places, in the history of old and new. We find it in the delightful myth of Antheus, who drives power from the earth; we find it among the subtle speculations of one of your splendid mathematicians, and in many hints and statements of thinkers of the present time. Throughout space there is energy. Is this energy static or kinetic? If static, our hopes are in vain; if kinetic - and this we know it is for certain - then it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature.

Experiments With Alternate Currents Of High Potential And High Frequency (February 1892).

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